The Persian Language is a southwestern Iranian language from the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is native to Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan but is the official language of only Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. There are various dialects to match these different areas respectively such as Western Persian, Eastern Persian, and Central Asian Persian, or Tajik.
There are a total of 60 million native speakers of Persian with 110 million speakers in total. Iranian languages are known from three periods which correspond to large periods chronologically in its history. These periods are simply known as Old, Middle, and New, or Modern, periods and are meant to describe the variances and evolution the Persian language underwent throughout time.
Modern Persian text is written with the Arabic script using a modified version of the Arabic alphabet. Originally, the Persian language was written using the Latin alphabet but was later adapted to the Arabic alphabet when Persia was converted to Islam during the Islamic conquest. There are even some forms of dialect variants like those mentioned previously, including Tajik, which are written with a modified form of the Cyrillic alphabet but are less common.