Australia (formally known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is the smallest continent in the world, and consists of the mainland country as well as a number of island nations in the Pacific and Indian oceans (such as Tasmania.) It's neighbors include New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the Solomon Islands.
For at least 42,000 years, the mainland has been inhabited by Indigenous Australians but is currently more diverse demographically after a history of being discovered by explorers in the 1600s, having the eastern half in claimed by the British in 1707, and colonization efforts / formation of federations closer to modern day.
The majority of Australia consists of semi-arid or desert land which many refer to as "The Outback." It is known as the driest, flattest continent with the least fertile soils. Because of this, a large amount of the population lives along the more temperate south-eastern coastline.