.stockholm Domain Information

Applicant Full Legal Name

Stockholms kommun

Legal Establishment

Swedish municipality

Applicant Address

Ragnar Östbergsplan 1
Stockholm 11855

State Jurisdiction

Kommunallag (1991:900) 1.kapitlet, §1 http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Kommunallag-1991900_sfs-1991-900/?bet=1991:900

Applicant Website


Applied for gTLD


Mission/Purpose of Domain Extension

18A The purpose of the City of Stockholm's own gTLD .stockholm is twofold: First, .stockholm will be a strong marketing tool, being part of a greater strategy for the City of Stockholm, aimed at the international business public. The purpose is that the City of Stockholm once more states its... Read more


The purpose of the City of Stockholm's own gTLD .stockholm is twofold:

First, .stockholm will be a strong marketing tool, being part of a greater strategy for the City of Stockholm, aimed at the international business public. The purpose is that the City of Stockholm once more states its strong position as a highly modern and innovative city, using cutting edge technology to deliver the infrastructure needed in order to enable its business community to be successful in their area of expertise and to continue to attract international companies for investment.

Secondly, .stockholm shall be used as reliable and trusted communication tool for the citizens of Stockholm in their contacts with the city and its service providers. It will be the official channel for communication from its own institutions like municipal offices, schools, hospitals, events etc. to the citizens of Stockholm. .stockholm will be used as a strong communication tool aimed at Stockholm's citizens, ensuring the origin of message, communicated either by email or web, leading to enhanced consumer trust in the field of online communication and marketing. .stockholm is part of a greater plan to enable the citizens of Stockholm the ultramodern lifestyle they expect from their city.

1. Stockholm - an innovative capital
Cities around the world are growing fast and as much as 75% of the world's population is believed to live in cities by 2050. Globalization is increasing and country borders become vaguer with the help of digital technology. This means that large cities are complementing the identity-building role previously communicated by nation-states. The population of Stockholm is increasing quickly, both in the city itself, the county and region of Stockholm. This puts high demand on service, accessibility and sustainability. Thus Stockholm has a long term commitment to be a world class city by 2030.
Stockholm is one of the world's most innovative cities. In 2009, Stockholm received the Intelligent Community of the Year Award by New York based think-tank Intelligent Community Foundation. Stockholm is home of world leading corporations in ICT, life science, environmental technology and more. The city attracts people who come here to live, work and carry out research, from other parts of Sweden and from all over the world.

To have its own gTLD is one mile stone in a long and intense commitment, which Stockholm has taken on since the 1990's. In 2000 Stockholm was announced as "ICT-capital of Europe" by Newsweek. Stockholm has 100% broadband coverage, fiber and mobile, which has been developed since 1994. It is the world's largest open city network, with 1 200 000 kilometers of fiber. By the end of this year, all apartment buildings and companies will have access to fiber connections.

Stockholm is also home to Europe's leading companies within ICT, most of which are found in Kista Science City. Through a close cooperation between the private sector, research institutions and universities, Kista Science City has turned into one of Stockholm's most important areas of economic growth, and an international center for wireless technology, broadband, mobile applications and services within bio-technology. There are more than 1400 ICT companies in the area - employing approximately 25 000 people. In order to continue this positive development, the City of Stockholm has to keep up the pace, taking advantage of new possibilities such as controlling its own gTLD .stockholm in order to remain the top city of innovative forerunners.

Digital technology is not only important in order to improve service, but also from a sustainability perspective. Having a well developed service sector and a wide use of broadband services among citizens, schools and companies gives the opportunity for a sustainable life style. Thus Stockholm was appointed Europe's first Environmental Capital by the EU in 2010. Stockholm sees its own gTLD .stockholm as natural further development of the digital services already offered to the local business community as of today.

2. Stockholm, a modern city to live in
The ambition is to make living in Stockholm easy for the citizens. To get to and from the office, pick up children from pre-school, make it on time for after school activities, to shop and meet up with friends - it all takes a bit of coordinating and planning to make both ends meet in our everyday life.

.stockholm is a major mile stone in Stockholm´s mission to offer operations, services and communication tools that the citizens can rely on. Stockholm is a city for everyone and for all parts of life. One goal is to provide high accessibility, smooth running traffic and top quality welfare services available whenever needed.

The City of Stockholm has developed e-services and a strong digital presence for many years. The aim is to be available 24/7, and offer fast and professional response and guidance. The development of services will continue and Stockholmers will be offered increased diversity of services. All operations and services run by Stockholm need to be efficient. The City's task is to support and facilitate life for its citizens.

Stockholm's investments in digital services have yielded good results. Through e-services communication have been facilitated between the City administration and the citizens, and significantly shortened processing time for the administration of Stockholm.

Efforts in developing and launching digital services are made by the public sector, as well as by Stockholm's private sector. The City of Stockholm has invested 650 million SEK in improving communication and e-services for its citizens and the City administrations over the last years. E-services for everything from building permits to pre-school places lead to more efficient management and an increased use of mobile and fixed broadband networks. By the end of 2012, the municipality will have launched approximately 60 e-services.

The results are already positive. Nine of ten Stockholmers apply for pre-schools online, as do half of the people applying for residential parking permits.

However, with more and more services available online, the city's need for a high control and security level increases. The demand is for 100% reassurance when using e-services with private data. Communicating with the City's inhabitants via .stockholm websites and email addresses, will have the possibility to enhance citizens trust that can increase the citizen´s use of city e-services.

Stockholm´s focus on e-services in combination with having its own gTLD .stockholm confirms the long term commitment. The broadband infrastructure and high level of web use being the foundation of this development. Sweden tops the International Telecommunication Union Index over household IT access and prices of phone and broadband services in 154 countries worldwide and in Stockholm the use is concentrated.

Conclusion - Objectives of the gTLD .stockholm
Stockholm is growing and sustainability and smart services are used to attract citizens, investors, business people and visitors. The City of Stockholm wants to take an active part in shaping the Internet of the future, and contribute to the digital development. Therefore, the City of Stockholm is investing in creating its own gTLD for all city services and activities.

In conclusion, the objective of .stockholm is to:

• Increase the visibility of the City of Stockholm, as well as the accessibility and usability of e-services for its citizens.
• Attract companies and coveted business people to the Stockholm region and to enable them a smooth and successful business entry by facilitating information transparency and increasing service availability.×


18 B .stockholm - a special gTLD The specialty of the .stockholm gTLD is that it incorporates all official information about the City of Stockholm from a business, citizen and tourist perspective. The aim of the city's own gTLD is to create a trusted communication platform which guarantees secure,... Read more

18 B

.stockholm - a special gTLD
The specialty of the .stockholm gTLD is that it incorporates all official information about the City of Stockholm from a business, citizen and tourist perspective. The aim of the city's own gTLD is to create a trusted communication platform which guarantees secure, integer and credible information and services to the city's inhabitants and corporations.

Service levels of .stockholm
The objective of .stockholm is to deliver a high service level with great accessibility, where important quality values are 99.7% uptime for all web services offered under .stockholm. In contrast to the current second-level domain portfolio, registered and hosted randomly, all second-level domains under .stockholm will be registered on standard name servers by the City's IT operating contractor with DNSSEC as standard and SSL certificates where needed. Due to .stockholm, the City of Stockholm will be able to easily and unhindered register second-level domain names for their municipal offices, schools, etc. Earlier, the city had to instead register alternative but less intuitive second-level domains. The result is a domain name portfolio of less relevance and lower quality as these second-level domains are more difficult for users to remember and the related e-services or city information will conclusively be more found by use of search engines than by direct navigation via the original second-level domain in question. Thanks to .stockholm a clear and simple second-level domain and marketing strategy can be created, which will result in the successful reach out to more Stockholm citizens. Being the registry over its own gTLD, the City of Stockholm will be able to create its own structure and second-level domain strategy and is thus easily able to set up standards for their gTLD and registered second-level domains and through this reach a high security level for their users. With decisions and important personal information sent from a .stockholm email address, the recipient shall feel safe that this email really is from the City of Stockholm. SPF records could be part of the City's strategy to reach this. If information is checked on a .stockholm homepage there is no doubt that the content provided on this website originates from the official channels of the City of Stockholm. The result will be consumers' enhanced reassurance about the addresser's identity.

Aims for reputation with .stockholm
The City of Stockholm has already earned the reputation of a highly innovative, modern city, one of Europe's hubs within the ICT business and Scandinavia's focal point for technology investments. However, as well-known - innovation and modernity are no long-term merits but have to be constantly strived after and actively worked with in order to keep a justification to describe the city of Stockholm with such fine adjectives. With its own gTLD, the City of Stockholm would once more show its capacity of being a forerunner, able to use cutting edge possibilities and technologies in order to enforce its reputation as one of the world's most innovative and modern cities.

ii. .stockholm and the current space
Stockholm wants to take part in developing the future of the Internet, and create a credible and visible sender for international visitors, authorities, future citizens and businesses. The goal is to promote Stockholm as a city with great opportunities in hand for everyone who is ready to take them on. Stockholm shall be known as a city to count on when it comes to thinking outside the box and enabling its citizens an ultramodern lifestyle on a competitive level like other attractive large international cities.

Differentiation - .stockholm, a role model
Due to the complexity, costs, and resources needed for application as well as running of the future registry, an own gTLD will definitely differentiate the City of Stockholm from other cities. It will also differentiate the City of Stockholm on an international level - being the Swedish capital - it will differentiate Sweden from other countries. This is a differentiation on both a commercial, citizen and tourist level, as the City of Stockholm will earn a communication tool only few cities will have and which will be used to make living, visiting and simply dealing with administrative errands easier.
The Scandinavian community, being as tight as it is with a long history of close collaborations between the states, .stockholm and the specific use of it as the main communication channel of the City of Stockholm will definitely be seen as role model for more gTLD applications to come in a future round by ICANN. .stockholm will create a sense of positive competitiveness that fosters creativity and innovation not only between the other Scandinavian but also the other European capital cities.

Differentiation - .stockholm and the brand "Sweden"
With its own gTLD the City of Stockholm will once more state its capacity as a European capital to count on, a technology forerunner with a young and modern attitude and an uncomplicated way of looking at life. It is obvious that the City of Stockholm has made the conscious decision years ago to become one of Northern Europe's most attractive locations for business investment and technology innovation. Repeated award nominations and articles in such renowned forums and magazines as the New York based foundation Intelligent Community and Newsweek have affirmed the front position of the City of Stockholm in terms of a modern, innovative and future-oriented lifestyle, possible to lead in this City. .stockholm will thus be a further brand building stone presenting the unique opportunity for the City of Stockholm to become remarkably more visible in the Internet space. The impact of .stockholm will not be limited to merely the City of Stockholm but will also affect the entire country, being another corner stone to manifest the brand of Sweden, a modern and innovative country with a readiness to mount technology barriers effortlessly.

.stockholm - an innovative approach
The innovative edge of .stockholm lies specifically in the unique communication tool as well as the amount of e-services that the City of Stockholm will be able to easily promote and provide to its citizens. The City of Stockholm as well as other cities with similar approach concerning their own gTLD write history on the accessibility to reach their e-services and information 24/7, the simplicity to find due to easy memorable second-level domains, the reliability to know that information from this channel is the official sender and to profit from the City administrations' increased efficiency with shorter processing time of errands.

iii. .stockholm's goals with regard to user experience
As one of Sweden's largest public service providers, user experience was in focus when developing the objectives for .stockholm. It is the citizens of Stockholm together with visitors and business people in need of information about Stockholm who will primarily use the .stockholm gTLD. In order to succeed in the usage of the .stockholm second-level domains in the future - who will eventually replace the current second-level domain portfolio under .se - the advantages experienced by consumers are several.
The main objective in terms of user experience of websites under .stockholm is clarity. As only the City of Stockholm including its municipal offices, schools, museums etc. will be eligible to register second-level domains under .stockholm in the name of the City of Stockholm, communication from this channel will be very clear. With the growing knowledge about the City's own gTLD, a website under .stockholm will even become a characteristic, for citizens easy to recognize, whether an institution e.g. a school is privately or publicly funded and will also in this way facilitate clarity and transparency.

The City of Stockholmʹs trade mark survey shows that stockholmers view the City as a very trustworthy organization. This fact is actively used in the Cityʹs development of its digital presence.
For many years, Stockholm has had an IT security policy to ensure that all City operations maintain the highest standards in terms of security and integrity for, among other things, administration of errands and personal data. The City of Stockholm has therefore already implemented DNSSEC and SSL certificates for all websites and services under its main second-level domain stockholm.se to guarantee user integrity.
The City of Stockholm has since the late 1990ʹs aimed at being one of the worldʹs most accessible cities for people with disabilities. Therefore, the City of Stockholm has since 2008 implemented tough guide lines when it comes to accessibility (easy to read services, sign language and more) for development of websites and e-services. All of the above will serve as a benchmark and quality guarantee for all new second-level domains under .stockholm.

In the technology age we live with constant information overload, it is especially crucial to make important information as easily and simple to access as possible. However, due to .stockholm the City of Stockholm will be easier to find and will have an easily recognizable address for an international, as well as a national audience.

iv. Registration policies of .stockholm
Registration responsibility within the City of Stockholm organization
In order to deliver high quality under .stockholm, the registration regulations are designed so that the user's needs, experience and security always is in focus. To guarantee proper, internal compliance and follow-up of the regulations, the responsibility for registry operations and follow-up will be separated within the City's organization. Registry operations with regard to order and delivery of second-level domains will be handled by the City Operations themselves via appointed registrar's website.
The City Executive Office IT Department will be responsible for the actual registry operations such as registration regulations and follow-up of the same, as well as follow-up of compliance with legal requirements of the ICANN agreement for the gTLD and handling of any abuse cases etc.
City of Stockholm will be the registered owner of all second-level domains under .stockholm. Internally, the ordering and thus by the registrar invoiced municipal entity, will be seen as owner of the relevant second-level domains and held responsible.

Registration policies of .stockholm
Who may order a .stockholm second-level domain?
Operations controlled by City administration, Companies owned by the municipality, City collaboration projects with operations directed towards citizens, businesses or visitors.

Second-level domains under .stockholm - regulations:
Names are not allowed to violate regulations for registrations of trademarks.
Swedish geographical names outside Stockholm cannot be registered without written consent or approval from the locally responsible County Council, District, County Administrative Board or council.
Names of countries and regions will not be allowed for registration along with ICANN New Registry Agreement Specification 5 for reserved names.
All two label second-level domain names will be blocked for registration.
NIC, WWW, IRIS and WHOIS will initially be blocked and only used in line with ICANN regulation.
Names with the use of hyphens in the third or fourth position will not be allowed in line with ICANN regulation.
In addition, the label "example" will be blocked on all levels in line with ICANN regulation.
Second-level domain names are provided on a first come first served basis.

Websites and services under .stockholm - requirements:
Mission of the website must comply with the goals stated by City Council
Content must follow national regulations regarding copyright.
Regulations outlined by the City's IT Security Policy must be followed.
Technical security measures determined in City's IT-program must be followed.
Integrity issues regarding handling and presentation of personal data must follow national regulations (Personal Data Act, PUL)
The City of Stockholm name-servers must be used for all domain-names under the new gTLD

Registering, renewal and termination of second-level domains
Registering a second-level domain - process:
1. The municipal entity visits an internal website
2. The municipal entity states:
Entity name and corporate identification number
Full legal name
The entity's complete address including email address and phone number
External billing address and cost center
Object description
If an Information Security Classification has been conducted in line with the City's IT security policy (yes/no)
Personal data will be administered (yes/no)
Duration of the registration (1,2 or 3 years)

3. The ordered second-level domain nameis synchronized with the list of blocked and already registered domain names if available for registration, an order can be placed at the appointed registrar.
4. The registrar sends the order information to the registry service provider by EPP code and confirms the successful registration of the second-level domain to the City of Stockholm after positive notice from Afilias. Standardized handle registration information will be used for owner, administrative, technical and billing information, to which an auto-generated email will be sent according to agreement between the City of Stockholm and the appointed registrar.
5. The City's IT operating contractor carries out security audits in line with the registry rules as well as zone records creation on the City's standard name servers. The Executive Office IT department will be notified in its role as registry for compliance with registration policies.
6. The ordering municipal entity will be invoiced by the registrar for the registration/renewal fee of its second-level domains.

Renewal of a second-level domain - process:
A renewal reminder will be sent to the registered billing handle information by e-mail three months prior to the expiration date, with additional reminders according to the registrar's routine.
Domain name registration data need to be reviewed and approved by the billed municipal entity in connection with the renewal, to ensure that the domain's purpose and use remain the same.
All renewed second-level domain names are sent to the City Executive Office IT Department for information.
In the event of non-payment one month after the expiry date, an e-mail is sent to the City Executive Office IT Department for verification of removal of the second-level domain.

Termination of a second-level domain - process:
The City of Stockholm can terminate a domain name at any time.
The second-level domain registration fee cannot be refunded.
The termination shall be sent in writing to the registrar.
Terminated second-level domains are notified to the City Executive Office IT Department.
Deregistration or blockage of a second-level domain can also take place in the event of breach of registry regulations.

Handling of violations of registry regulation - procedure
Legal claims and notifications of breaches of regulations can be posted via the .stockholm registry's official, publicly available website.. The notifications will be forwarded to the registrar for acknowledgement, and to the City Executive IT Department for assessment.
Breach of regulation leads to:
A warning
The termination of the second-level domain
The blockage of the second-level domain
Blockage of second-level domain
In addition, the City Executive Office IT Department will conduct an annual audit of selected registered domains to ensure compliance with the regulations.

In the event of breech of the following, a warning will be issued to the domain owner first hand:
Changing the purpose of the second-level domain significantly without notifying the City Executive IT Department.
Introducing new features concerning e.g. personal data without the relevant safety measures
The contents of the site or the services violates the registration policies

A termination could be issued if:
The municipal entity invoiced for the second-level domain has consistently breached the City's policy for IT security.
The relevant website is believed to pose a serious security risk for the users.
The domain is believed to breach the regulations for Swedish geographical names.
The municipal entity invoiced for the second-level domain has significantly changed the purpose of the website, and in such a way that it could breach the regulations, or is used in a way that is not in line with the goals and/or set guidelines of the City Council.
The municipal entity invoiced for the second-level domain is consistently breaching copyright laws.

Blockage of second-level domain
Registered second-level domains that breach the regulations for international geographical names and registered trademarks, will be terminated and blocked in connection with the positive assessment of the breach. Second-level domains may also be terminated and blocked if there is a breach of any other ICANN regulations.

Based on the above stated regulations, the goals of the user experience of .stockholm are believed to be achieved.
Clarity - A clear and credible sender is guaranteed by only allowing registration of second-level domains for municipal entities part of the City of Stockholm.
Credibility - Proper security and credibility is guaranteed due to the high overall demands concerning technology and integrity that are put on all websites and e-services constructed under .stockholm second-level domains.
Simplicity - It will be easy for citizens to identify the sender, and to know where to turn with questions, since all of the City's municipal entities will be gathered under the .stockholm domain.

v. Privacy/confidential information of registrant and users under .stockholm
Registrant information
According to the registration policy above, only the City of Stockholm will be able to register and own domain names under .stockholm. The City having full control over all second-level domains it is guaranteed that the content provided under this gTLD is the official and valid information. In accordance with regular gTLD whois information, the registration details for each second-level domain under .stockholm will be public information and visible to anybody. There is no need for privacy registrations under .stockholm, the City of Stockholm being the sole possible registrant.

Handling of user data
The City of Stockholm follows the national legislation for handling of personal data and guarantees the highest security for all its web presence. Web pages and services under the new gTLD will be developed along the City's guidelines and be administrated by the City's procured suppliers, from which the highest demands are required - guaranteeing a safe user experience. Examples of security measures taken as of today are SSL certificates and DNSSEC. This will be the future standard of all second-level domains under .stockholm.

The contribution of .stockholm
Many objectives of .stockholm are hard to measure being soft values by nature as branding, the creation of a certain perception of Stockholm and Sweden, only indirectly measureable by increase of business investments or numbers of overnight stays. Other factors are measurable such as number of e-services used/delivered and processing time savings per errand. By help of .stockholm, the City will have a clear thus strong communication and marketing tool to deliver its message to the world. Hence, .stockholm will definitely contribute to achieve the City's above mentioned objectives.×

Operational Rules and Cost Benefits

18 C Actions to reduce social costs Reducing social costs within the City of Stockholm The City of Stockholm is home to approximately 40 municipal companies and administrations. There are about 600 pre-schools, 150 schools, 30 elderly care centers and many more. Each of these entities shall have... Read more

18 C

Actions to reduce social costs

Reducing social costs within the City of Stockholm
The City of Stockholm is home to approximately 40 municipal companies and administrations. There are about 600 pre-schools, 150 schools, 30 elderly care centers and many more. Each of these entities shall have the possibility to register their organization name and more if wished, under .stockholm. The City of Stockholm will create an internal domain name strategy that thoroughly addresses aspects such as registration routine, cost estimation and DNS management and make this information available to its employees. The objective is to make second-level domain name registration under .stockholm as smooth and clear for the municipal entities in order to minimize resistance against the new gTLD. In summary, the various municipal entities will contact the .stockholm registry with an order for a second-level domain name registration and the registry will take care of the actual registration procedure with the registrar and confirm to the ordering entity when the domain name registration is completed. Hosting services in a standardized manner will be provided from one chosen provider, also here simplifying second-level domain name and DNS management for each entity by providing well-functioning services in a routinized and simple form to the City's entities.

Reducing social costs for Stockholm citizens and more
It is clear that for such a large second-level domain portfolio that affects many thousand people on a daily basis, it will take time to get to change the users' surfing habits and e.g. link savings. The City of Stockholm meets this challenge amongst others by informing the citizens through the official communication channel regularly used as the Internet, printed information in municipal buildings, information distributed via the intranet to municipal employees as well as PR through media such as the daily press.

Furthermore, under a transition phase probably at least two to three years, the City of Stockholm will keep its current second-level domain portfolio of .se domains alive and forward all traffic to the new .stockholm websites. This way, there will be a learning process for the users regarding the existence of the new .stockholm internet presence. After this transition phase, maybe only a parking site is informing the user about the correct homepage instead.

i. multiple applications for second level domain
In such a big organization, it is only to be expected that there will occur multiple applications for certain second-level domain names based on the fact that several entities share the same entity name as for example a number of pre-schools. In general second-level domain name applications will be handled on a first come/first serve basis with the exception of protected trademarks which are naturally not eligible to apply.
In the event that during the sunrise phase, multiple applications for a second-level domain name should be received, the City of Stockholm will handle this matter in the same way this problem is solved currently, by adding a a geographical appendix according to the city district the entity is located. This way the risk of confusion of the two similarly called entities will be eliminated .

ii. Advantageous pricing
It is the clear intention from the City of Stockholm to keep the costs as low as possible and there will be no actual registration price invoiced to the domain name ordering entities from the registry. Registrar registration fees will however be paid by each ordering entity directly to the registrar. The total costs of the registry and those costs in direct relation to .stockholm will be shared between the municipal body based on each entity's size, in the same way IT costs are shared as of today. This means that each entity is only invoiced the cost price, which is as advantageous pricing as can be offered from the City of Stockholm and in complete parity with the overall objectives of the new TLD, which are not to make profit but to promote the City of Stockholm as an innovative and modern city with high living standard.

iii. Development of second-level domain costs
According to the Applicant Guidebook, an ICANN accredited registrar will be contracted in order to register .stockholm domain names. The future registrar will be able to register .stockholm second-level domains for one, two, three, five or ten years, however the City of Stockholm will probably mostly register second-level domains under .stockholm with a registration period of one, two or three years depending on the occasion. In order to reduce costs short registration lengths will be chosen for second-level domains for e.g. events or shorter projects, whereas long registration durations are thought for core domain registrations of municipal entities.
The disbursed second-level domain costs over time will not be raised without reason however, the divided domain cost for each municipal entity, which include as above stated also all fixed and running costs for the .stockholm registry will follow the cost development imposed on the City of Stockholm from all involved providers needed to run the gTLD.Naturally, the City of Stockholm will make all efforts to negotiate as advantageous terms of conditions, including the limitation of costs, as possible.×

Is this a Community-based TLD?


Is this a Geographic-based TLD?


Protection of Geographic Names

22. Protection of Geographic Names The City of Stockholm will protect names with national or geographic significance by reserving the country and territory names at the second level and at all other levels within the TLD, as per the requirements in the New TLD Registry Agreement (Specification 5,... Read more

22. Protection of Geographic Names

The City of Stockholm will protect names with national or geographic significance by reserving the country and territory names at the second level and at all other levels within the TLD, as per the requirements in the New TLD Registry Agreement (Specification 5, paragraph 5).

The City of Stockholm will employ a series of rules to translate the geographical names required to be reserved by Specification 5, paragraph 5 to a form consistent with the ʺhost namesʺ format used in domain names.

Reserved names for the City of Stockholm
There are 117 official City Districts within Stockholm's City Council. As the objective of the gTLD .stockholm is to be solely registered and owned by the City of Stockholm for the marketing and communication purposes of municipal information to the citizens and businesses in Stockholm as well as to deliver official information to Stockholm visitors, local geographical names like City Districts are essential for the correct and meaningful usage of .stockholm. The names of these City Districts will be reserved for the City District Administrations to register. The City of Stockholm will also be able to register names of potential and actual new City District conversions in the future.

Thus, the following geographical names have been reserved for Stockholm's City Districts beforehand and will be released when ordered internally from the municipal entity in question:

Abrahamsberg, Akalla, Alvik, Aspudden, Bagarmossen, Bandhagen, Beckomberga, Björkhagen, Blackeberg, Bredäng, Bromma Kyrka, Bromsten, Bällsta, Djurgården, Eneby, Enskede gård, Enskededalen, Enskedefältet, Fagersjö, Farsta, Farsta strand, Farstanäset, Flaten, Flysta, Fredhäll, Fruängen, Gamla Enskede, Gamla stan, Grimsta, Gröndal, Gubbängen, Gärdet, Hagsätra, Hammarbyhöjden, Hansta naturreservat, Herrängen, Hjorthagen, Husby, Hägersten, Hägerstensåsen, Hässelby gård, Hässelby strand, Hässelby villastad, Högdalen, Höglandet, Hökarängen, Johanneshov, Kista, Kristineberg, Kungsholmen, Kälvesta, Kärrtorp, Larsboda, Liljeholmen, Lilla Essingen, Liseberg, Lunda, Långbro, Långholmen, Långsjö, Marieberg, Mariehäll, Midsommarkransen, Mälarhöjden, Nockeby, Nockebyhov, Norra Djurgården, Norra Ängby, Norrmalm, Nälsta, Olovslund, Orhem, Reimersholme, Riddarholmen, Riksby, Rinkeby, Råcksta, Rågsved, Skarpnäcks gård, Skeppsholmen, Skrubba, Skärholmen, Sköndal, Smedslätten, Solberga, Solhem, Stadshagen, Stora Essingen, Stora mossen, Stureby, Sundby, Svedmyra, Sätra, Södermalm, Södra Hammarbyhamnen, Södra Ängby, Tallkrogen, Tensta, Traneberg, Ulvsunda, Vasastan, Vinsta, Vällingby, Västberga, Västertorp, Vårberg, Älvsjö, Äppelviken, Åkeshov, Åkeslund, Ålsten, Årsta, Örby, Örby slott, Östberga, Östermalm.

Considering the Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC) advice "Principles regarding new gTLDs", these domains will be blocked, at no cost to governments, public authorities, or IGOs, before the TLD is introduced (Sunrise), so that no parties may apply for them. The City of Stockholm will publish a list of these names before Sunrise, so the appointed registrar and prospective applicants within the City can be aware that these names are reserved.

The City of Stockholm will define a procedure so that governments can request the above reserved domain(s) if they would like to take possession of them. This procedure will be based on existing methodology developed for the release of country names in the .INFO TLD. For example, the .stockholm registry will require a written request from the country's GAC representative, or a written request from the country's relevant Ministry or Department. The City of Stockholm will allow the designated beneficiary (the Registrant) to register the name, with an accredited Afilias Registrar, possibly using an authorization number transmitted directly to the designated beneficiary in the country concerned.

Other Swedish geographical names including City Councils or City Districts, such as Malmö or Göteborg, cannot be registered without written consent or approval from the locally responsible County Council, Country District, County Administrative Board or Council.

As defined by Specification 5, paragraph 5, such geographic domains may be released to the extent that Registry Operator reaches agreement with the applicable government(s). Registry operator will work with respective GAC representatives of the country's relevant Ministry of Department to obtain their release of the names to the Registry Operator.

If internationalized domains names (IDNs) are introduced in the TLD in the future, we will also reserve the IDN versions of the country names in the relevant script(s) before IDNs become available to the public. If the City of Stockholm finds it advisable and practical, it will confer with relevant language authorities so that the City can reserve the IDN domains properly along with their variants.

Regarding GAC advice regarding second-level domains not specified via Specification 5, paragraph 5: All domains awarded to registrants are subject to the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), and to any properly-situated court proceeding. The City of Stockholm will ensure appropriate procedures to allow governments, public authorities or IGO's to challenge abuses of names with national or geographic significance at the second level. In its registry-registrar agreement, and flowing down to registrar-registrant agreements, the registry operator will institute a provision to suspend domains names in the event of a dispute. The City of Stockholm may exercise that right in the case of a dispute over a geographic name.

Eliminated risk of cyber-squatters and defensive registration
Based on the regulations of the .stockholm registry, only the City of Stockholm can register domain names under .stockholm for its municipal entities, which erases the risk of cyber-squatters completely. This means that defensive second-level domain registration will not be an issue at all under .stockholm, as other entities outside the administrative body of the City of Stockholm cannot register or own a .stockholm domain name, as it will not be an open gTLD. This in turn means that no registered trademarks of private actors can be registered under .stockholm. In conclusion, trademark owners need not to worry on trademark infringement on the Internet under .stockholm, which mostly is the reason for defensive registrations. .stockholm registry follows thus section 2.9 of the GAC Principles of new gTLDs.

In conclusion, it is the interest of the City of Stockholm to be a reliable and trustworthy registry according to the GAC principles of new gTLDs as well as ICANNs regulations. The registry is only more than interested to protect others countries' and regions' geographical names and thus will deliver registry guidelines and processes to minimize the risk of such registrations under .stockholm as well as to deliver all support needed in case the registry will be approached by governments, public authorities or IGOs.×