Application Preview

Application number: 1-1727-80321 for MMA IARD

Generated on 11 06 2012


Applicant Information


1. Full legal name

MMA IARD

2. Address of the principal place of business

14, Bd Marie et Alexandre Oyon
Le Mans 72030
FR

3. Phone number

+33243417272

4. Fax number

+33243417226

5. If applicable, website or URL

http:⁄⁄www.mma.fr

Primary Contact


6(a). Name

Mr. Matthieu Credou

6(b). Title

Business Manager

6(c). Address


6(d). Phone Number

+33139308378

6(e). Fax Number


6(f). Email Address

[email protected]

Secondary Contact


7(a). Name

Mr. Stephane Daeschner

7(b). Title

Directeur de la marque et de la communication externe

7(c). Address


7(d). Phone Number

+33243416193

7(e). Fax Number

+33243416401

7(f). Email Address

[email protected]

Proof of Legal Establishment


8(a). Legal form of the Applicant

Societe Anonyme

8(b). State the specific national or other jursidiction that defines the type of entity identified in 8(a).

French Law. Code de Commerce au chapitre V, titre deuxième.

8(c). Attach evidence of the applicant's establishment.

Not Available

9(a). If applying company is publicly traded, provide the exchange and symbol.


9(b). If the applying entity is a subsidiary, provide the parent company.

MMA COOPERATIONS

9(c). If the applying entity is a joint venture, list all joint venture partners.


Applicant Background


11(a). Name(s) and position(s) of all directors

Alain ElieAdministrateur
Anne Jose FulgerasAdministrateur
Daniele BouchutAdministrateur
Didier GardinalAdministrateur
Jean Claude SeysAdministrateur
Philippe RapicaultAdministrateur
Remy VergesAdministrateur

11(b). Name(s) and position(s) of all officers and partners

Christian BaudonDirecteur General Non Administrateur
Christian DelahaigueVice President Administrateur
Didier BazzocchiDirecteur General Delegue
Herve FrapsauceDirecteur General Delegue
Michel GougnardDirecteur General Delegue
Philippe RenaultDirecteur General Delegue
Sophie BeuvadenDirecteur General Delegue
Thierry DerezPresident

11(c). Name(s) and position(s) of all shareholders holding at least 15% of shares

MMA COOPERATIONSNot Applicable

11(d). For an applying entity that does not have directors, officers, partners, or shareholders: Name(s) and position(s) of all individuals having legal or executive responsibility


Applied-for gTLD string


13. Provide the applied-for gTLD string. If an IDN, provide the U-label.

mma

14(a). If an IDN, provide the A-label (beginning with "xn--").


14(b). If an IDN, provide the meaning or restatement of the string in English, that is, a description of the literal meaning of the string in the opinion of the applicant.


14(c). If an IDN, provide the language of the label (in English).


14(c). If an IDN, provide the language of the label (as referenced by ISO-639-1).


14(d). If an IDN, provide the script of the label (in English).


14(d). If an IDN, provide the script of the label (as referenced by ISO 15924).


14(e). If an IDN, list all code points contained in the U-label according to Unicode form.


15(a). If an IDN, Attach IDN Tables for the proposed registry.

Not Available

15(b). Describe the process used for development of the IDN tables submitted, including consultations and sources used.


15(c). List any variant strings to the applied-for gTLD string according to the relevant IDN tables.


16. Describe the applicant's efforts to ensure that there are no known operational or rendering problems concerning the applied-for gTLD string. If such issues are known, describe steps that will be taken to mitigate these issues in software and other applications.

The MMA TLD (and its Registry Back-end Service Provider, AFNIC) ensured that there are no known operational or rendering problems concerning the applied-for gTLD string ʺmmaʺ.

Since the gTLD string ʺmmaʺ is an ASCII-only string, it is safe to assume that, just like with existing ASCII-only TLD strings like .com, .net or .de, no operational or rendering problems may be expected.

In particular, the name consists only of ASCII characters that are already used for existing top level domains; all the characters in the name are even used in the leftmost position of existing TLD labels. 

In order to confirm this, MMA IARDʹs Registry Back-end Service Provider has conducted a thorough research regarding whether operational or rendering issues occurred for any existing ASCII-only top level domain in the past.

The results of this research confirmed the assumption.

This means that bi-directional issues (like the ones described at http:⁄⁄stupid.domain.name⁄node⁄683) will not occur, also since the TLD string does not contain digits (which behaviour in bi-directional contexts can lead to rendering issues).

Moreover, the gTLD string exclusively uses characters from a single alphabet, does not contain digits or hyphens, and it contains characters that are not subject to homograph issues, which means there is no potential for confusion with regard to the rendering of other TLD strings.

Finally,  MMA IARDʹs Registry Back-end Service Provider set up a testing environment for the MMA TLD using the MMA TLD target Registration System, including an EPP SRS, Whois and DNS servers, in order to conduct a series of tests involving typical use cases (like web site operation and e-mail messaging) for a TLD. 

The tests revealed no operational or rendering issues with any popular software (web browsers, e-mail clients) or operating systems.

17. (OPTIONAL) Provide a representation of the label according to the International Phonetic Alphabet (http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/).


Mission/Purpose


18(a). Describe the mission/purpose of your proposed gTLD.

Table of Contents

1 - Mission and purpose of .MMA
1.1 - Marketing opportunities
1.2 - Increased control
1.3 - Engage our community
1.4 - Innovative business model
1.5 - Costs
1.6 - Implications


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1 - Mission and purpose of .MMA

Our mission and vision is to establish .MMA as the most trusted top-level domain for MMA and⁄or MMAʹs community to launch, operate and use trusted destinations for MMAʹs and⁄or MMAʹs communityʹs related information, services and engagements on different levels.

While MMA is willing to seize the opportunities and rewards brought by the operation of .MMA, it is also aware of the responsibilities carried out in this project.

The framework of potential benefits, costs and implications for MMA appears as follows:

MMA, Franceʹs ʺfirst insurance social networkʺ considers the new top level domain .MMA as a new branding, marketing and strategic opportunity in line with its roots as a mutual insurance company, its new positioning and its willingness to use the 21st centuryʹs technology to foster and reinforce the social link between all members of its community. MMA also believes that .MMA is the most efficient path to enhance its brand name, to ensure a secure community for its partners and customers and to accelerate its development in all its markets (personal, professional and company insurance) and in all insurance fields (property, liability, individual and provident insurances, etc.). The top level domain .MMA will help further federate all of MMAʹs community members around the shared values of solidarity, humanism, compassion, caring, efficiency, dynamism and simplicity.

Expected benefits are mainly related to the following:

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1.1 - Marketing opportunities

We see the potential of .MMA to capitalize on our brand market strength. We are the fourth insurer spontaneously known on the French market: unaided awareness is up to thirty three point three per cent (33.3%) within France. We have one of the best brand images among French insurers and expect .MMA to give us a higher profile and greater visibility. Making our brand and our websites even more attractive will increase internet traffic and consequently boost return on our investments. The particular marketing advantage offered by .MMA is the image we will have of a dynamic and innovative insurer, always close to its community.

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1.2 - Increased control

We are aware that .MMA can ensure security benefits as it allows us to set the rules and policies for domain registrations: we will then have an increased control over who is eligible to register for a domain and on the content within our gTLD. Our community will then benefit from a unique, common and specific extension where all our existing websites will converge. Today there are a great number of websites, each corresponding to an agency representing MMA on the French territory and a number of other websites such as our official website (www.MMA.fr), our risk prevention websites (zerotracas.com, zerotracas.tv and zerotracas.mobi) and branding website (journee0tracas.fr).

Control is strengthened by the scenario set out by MMA, where only MMA will have the ownership of all domain names (ʺSingle Registrantʺ). MMA will then grant the use of its domain names to eligible third parties (ʺDomain usersʺ) and thus ensure a better control over and an increased security of its internet ʺislandʺ. We must highlight here that this structure is necessary since our applied for gTLD is related to a Community Brand, where protection of MMA brand is of essence.
A number of practical advantages may also arise through a better control of our investments: for example, .MMA will bring forward our communication and promotional campaigns such as advertising, direct communications and editorial communications.

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1.3 - Engage our community

.MMA will create a rallying point for MMAʹs community where all community members can gather in a secure and convenient way. This will reinforce relationships and encourage the community to unite around MMAʹs activities and values.
MMA has always been eager to involve its community in its activities and engagements. For instance, MMAʹs website today includes a forum where its community can participate to MMAʹs life by asking for information, giving their opinion and sharing their experiences (ʺShare within your communityʺ). The .MMA experience will give MMAʹs community a better place to unite and share on different levels and values. Corporate responsibility is an essential and integral part of MMAʹs operation and we are hoping that our gTLD will allow integrating responsibility into our communityʹs daily life and thus building a truly responsible community. The core of our business is to protect people and we trust that solid relationships within our community are paramount. Reinforcing corporate responsibility is the demonstration of our engagement for our community. We believe our role includes social responsibility where our mission of protecting people on the long term also consists on protecting the environment, supporting the community and helping the society in which we operate. We already committed to different causes (such as MMA foundation for disabled people) and we are counting on the new gTLD to go even further in our commitments toward society and environment.

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1.4 - Innovative business model

Through .MMA, our vision is to build an entirely innovative insurance company not only through possible new product and service offerings but most of all by aligning our efforts, resources and processes to enhance the value propositions we make, capture new market segments and thus foster competition.

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1.5 - Costs

We are aware that by entering the new gTLD program we will engage in a costly long process. Our plan takes into consideration the costs we will incur and thus we have anticipated the methods of getting a return on our investment. Our studies show that the financial benefits we will get from our project on the long term exceed the costs we will incur. We will mainly get our financial benefits from savings on our marketing campaigns and on our referencing costs that our new gTLD will make possible on the long term. Our investment in .MMA will also permit in the long term to significantly decrease our domain name portfolio management fees, not to mention other indirect benefits such as the increase in the number of our clients.

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1.6 - Implications

By obtaining the new gTLD .MMA, we will be able to secure our own space on the internet. For this, we are willing to implement and abide by all necessary measures and policies, such as:
* Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP)
* Uniform Rapid Suspension (URS)


18(b). How proposed gTLD will benefit registrants, Internet users, and others


Table of Contents

1 - Benefit for Domain Users, internet users and others


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1 - Benefit for Domain Users, internet users and others

* As a reminder, please note that our structure is one of a ʺSingle Registrantʺ. To adjust your question to our scenario we think it is necessary to talk about the benefits of our new gTLD to ʺDomain Usersʺ (and not ʺregistrantsʺ). Our goal in term of benefit for Domain Users, internet users and others is first of all achieved by the expansion of our areas of specialty, the improvement of our service level and the enhancement of our reputation. Having our own gTLD will permit to target finite audiences through customized content. A better service level is achieved through a better online accessibility to products and services: .mma will be used as a restructuring tool of the online services. For instance, our new gTLD will allow a better access to content through a better search engine ranking results and through a more intuitive direct navigation. Having control over the top level domain gives us all possible latitude. From another point of view, developing our e-services makes possible the reinforcement of certain specialties in our activities via the capture of new market segments for example. All this, is the first step in developing our groupʹs international dimension on the long term. This expansion will enhance our reputational and notoriety boost and optimize the strategies of our brand.

* We are aware of the mission new gTLDs are given: fostering competition is also part of the vision we have of our new TLD. Winning new markets, widening our specialties through our .mma will increase the number of competitors in certain fields and thus encourage competition. Also, the business model MMA will offer (i.e. federation of its community and engagements it makes to its community) will set an example to other insurance companies in the French market by giving strong proof of its determination to be innovative and responsible on a corporate, social and environmental level. In the same time, in terms of differentiation, MMA will have the particularity of widening its fields of activity via .mma and offering secure and high level services to its customers. For instance, MMA can anticipate the evolution of its customersʹ behaviour by facilitating access to information via relevant key words and facilitating navigation within its websites and its Domain Users websites.


* Our proposed new gTLD will have a number of advantages in terms of user experience. Members of the MMA community, eligible for having the use of their own domain name under .mma extension (Domain Users), will receive a new legitimacy, ensuring and confirming that they share the values and expectations of MMAʹs community. Furthermore, communicating with the public via .mma provides Domain Users with a better visibility and a greater impact on internet users. Those end users will also benefit from the .mma experience: they will have a warranty as to the origin and quality of the services. Unauthorized sales and channel non-compliance will be more difficult within our gTLD since only authorized service providers will be granted the use of a second level domain. Customers will therefore confidently purchase legitimate services.

* Because we will own our gTLD, we can then set the domain registration policy and control who is eligible for a domain and what content is permitted. Thus, we can prevent unwanted activity by domainers and cybersquatters. The scenario through which we offer increased security is one where MMA will appear as the owner of all domain names (ʺSingle Registrantʺ) and consequently grant the use of such domain names to eligible Domain Users. This will secure a strengthened control over domain names and will add an extra measure allowing the protection of trademarks. This measure will form with the implementation of a Delegation Commission (controlling the eligibility requirements and awarding use of domain names to Domain Users), the Sunrise period and the trademark claims service a strong commitment to preserve third parties rights. A registration policy will be adopted, allowing MMA to reserve to itself not only the ownership but also the use of certain domain names i.e. domain names related to MMA trademarks, to geographical names, departments, services and group projects. Our registration policy will include the following usage eligibility requirements: First of all, the asked for domain name should not be one reserved by MMA (both ownership and use). The person or entity requiring the use of the domain name shall be a person or an entity which has or may have a privileged link with MMA (i.e. a social, economic and⁄or partnership relation). The application should be done in support of a project in relation to the activities and⁄or needs of MMA and⁄or MMAʹs community. In any case, the person or entity and project should be compliant with MMAʹs values otherwise MMA reserve the right to refuse the grant of a license to use. A list of documents shall be provided in support of the application such as: identification certificate of the applying person or entity, proof as to their honesty and integrity, proof of an oral or written agreement with MMA, project outline and in case of an applied for trademark, justify the ownership of such trademark.

* MMA is a French Group, we therefore commit to adopt privacy measures upon recommendation of CNIL (National Commission on Informatics and Freedoms). Domain Users data will be kept by MMA for internal purposes only.

Finally, we would like to insist on the fact that our benefits may not be achievable without implementing our .mma project. At this point, and with all the changes new gTLDs will bring to the internet, it is mandatory for us to restructure our institutional websites in a pyramidal structure where MMA sits at the peak. Our new gTLD will permit efficient communication campaigns with our community and the general public.

18(c). Describe operating rules to eliminate or minimize social costs or financial resource costs, various types of consumer vulnerabilities.


Table of Contents

1 - Rules and steps adopted to eliminate or minimize social costs and negative consequences imposed upon customers



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1 - Rules and steps adopted to eliminate or minimize social costs and negative consequences imposed upon customers

* Keeping in mind the importance of minimizing costs, we will implement a mechanism permitting to grant usage of domain names on a first come first served basis for eligible applicants only upon the decision of the Delegation Commission. Our structure does not justify recourse to auction which will be more costly and not necessarily more efficient.

* We intend to implement costs benefits to several categories of registrants in several situations. We want our .mma to be accessible to all persons or entities fulfilling the eligibility requirements and sharing MMAʹs goals and values. Therefore, we will continuously pay particular attention to situations where costs benefits should be granted and implement relevant rules allowing such benefits. Categories of registrants and situations where registrants will benefit of special costs will be determined on the basis of regular commercial studies.

* We do intend to make contractual commitments regarding the magnitude of price escalation. Our contracts with DomainUsers will include a provision stating that price escalation will be done in accordance with market price escalations and ICANN indexation.

Community-based Designation


19. Is the application for a community-based TLD?

Yes

20(a). Provide the name and full description of the community that the applicant is committing to serve.

Table of Contents

1 - Delineation for internet users
2 - Structure and organisation 
3 - Origins and activities to date
4 - Estimated size of community



MMA insurance social network is a group of social identities- private individuals, professionals, companies, agents, employees- linked to each other through social interactions based on common values of cooperation, exchange of information and energy. The main goal of this network is to ensure a joint coverage to MMAʹs community against all kinds of daily life accidents. Members of MMAʹs community are active, united and responsible. Their common values are those of solidarity, humanism, compassion, caring, efficiency, dynamism and simplicity. MMAʹs rallying cry ʺzéro tracas, zéro blabla!ʺ (ʺno hassle no claptrapʺ) mirrors the fact that MMA is willing to ensure best attention and best services to its community members.  
 

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1 - Delineation for internet users
ʺMMAʺ and ʺinsuranceʺ go hand in hand mainly in France but also in the United Kingdom. If you, or any internet user, enter the words ʺMMAʺ and ʺinsuranceʺ in your research all related information will promptly appear on the screen listing and⁄or making references to any or all part of MMAʹs community. MMAʹs community activities and engagements rotate around insurance products and services provided by MMA. Protection of men and women, whether through insurance coverage, social assistance, cultural development and environmental safeguard, is the main goal of MMA and of its community. 
 
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2 - Structure and organisation
Our community has a pyramidal structure with MMA at the peak. MMAʹs community includes MMAʹs 7000 employees working at its headquarter, its 1800 agents and their employees based on the French territory, its 3.2 million clients, its social network of cooperation, MMA Foundation and all other members who, over the years, became an integral part of the community, sharing its same interests and common values, particularly those of solidarity and humanism, that together make it possible to the community to evolve on a daily basis. 


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3 - Origins and activities to date
MMAʹs values are rooted in its two hundred years old mutualistic origins: a bond between men and women willing to achieve together what separately was not achievable. On May 25, 1828, twenty four (24) shareholders gathered upon the request of Louis Basse to found the ʺMutuelle Immobilière Incendieʺ in the French city of Mans: their aim was to ensure coverage against fire, sky fire (lightning) and explosion of gas light. The first social network was created, bringing to life what will later become MMA. In 1918, Gustave Singher invented the ʺNew Mutuelle du Mansʺ which regrouped in 1923 three other ʺMutuellesʺ under the name of ʺMutuelles du Mans Incendieʺ. Progressively, other ʺMutuellesʺ joined the group and activities became more diverse including other insurance protections such as life insurance and health insurance. 1969 is a capital date: an agreement was signed between all ʺMutuellesʺ giving birth to the official Mutuelles des Mans Group. Only in 1987, the group became ʺMutuelles du Mans Assurancesʺ and included the actual three entities: Mutuelle du Mans IARD, Mutuelle du Mans Vie and DAS.

In 1999, willing to differentiate itself from its competitors, ʺMutuelles du Mans Assurancesʺ chose a shorter and cooler name ʺMMAʺ which was presented to the public in a colorful round shaped logo. A new promise was also made: ʺZéro tracas, zéro blabla, avec MMA, cʹest le bonheur assuréʺ through which MMA commits to provide its customers with closer and more efficient services. The year 2000 is the year where MMA reorganized itself in a way to benefit to the maximum from new technologies. MMA gains in notoriety and for the period of 2000-2002 forty seven thousand (47000) new clients joined MMA monthly. MMA offers more and more services to satisfy its large platform of clients (such as bank services since 2005). MMA does not stop there, it goes beyond insurance activities and commit to a diverse number of humanitarian, social, cultural and environmental activities (MMArena, MMAcadémie, etc.). The best is yet to come with .mma! 


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4 - Estimated size of community
 
The estimated size of MMAʹs community is around 3.3 million persons for its quantifiable part. Nevertheless, a mention must be done to other members of the community who adhere and participate to MMAʹs humanitarian, social, cultural and environmental activities but who are not quantifiable. 
The geographical extent of MMA covers today France and the United Kingdom at a second level.   


20(b). Explain the applicant's relationship to the community identified in 20(a).

Table of Contents

1 - MMA: principal organisation of MMAʹs community 
2 - Relations to the community and its constituent parts
3 - Accountability mechanisms of the applicant to the community



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1 - MMA: principal organisation of MMAʹs community 

Actually, MMA is the organization that was at the origin of our community: itʹs the social unit of men and woman that was structured and that evolved through time to form the actual MMA organization and to meet the need of providing insurance coverage and other social, cultural and environmental services to MMAʹs community. MMA is therefore the beating heart of the community since only with the products and services that it provides the community can exist.    


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2 - Relations to the community and its constituent parts

As previously mentioned, MMAʹs community has vital relations with MMA. In simple words, MMA provides jobs to its employees, it ensures work to its agents and their employees through the services it allows them to offer to clients and provide products and services to its clients. MMA also sponsors its Foundation, MMArena and MMAcadémie and different social, cultural and environmental activities and thus ensure these vital relations with relevant members of its community.   


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3 - Accountability mechanisms of the applicant to the community

To be accountable, MMA integrated transparency, participation, evaluation, and complaint and response mechanisms to its practice. It provides accessible and timely information to its community, provide mechanisms to its community to participate in its practice, it monitors and reviews its progress against goals and objectives and reports on the result of its progress, and ensures that complaints on issues are reviewed and acted upon. 

MMA differentiated itself since its creation by its unequal image of proximity insurance to claim a position on the French market as an intensely interactive brand. This means first of all that MMAʹs brand lives, thinks and shares the same needs, the same concerns and the same expectations as its community. It also means that MMA is a brand that units, as in any community, the whole MMA family. And most of all it is a brand that prioritizes its clients requests and act upon these requests. This is why, for instance, MMA made it possible to clients to compose their fees and insurances according to their needs. Also, this is why sharing information, solutions and benefits with its community, is one of the main concerns of MMA. More specifically, MMAʹs clients elect a minimum of one hundred fifty (150) representatives for a three (3) years mandate renewable to participate and vote in general meetings of MMA where board of directors is elected, accounts are approved and policies validated. Informational sessions are provided to newly elected representatives that introduce the world of insurance to clientsʹ representatives and explain the role they are expected to play in MMAʹs life.   

Particularly, MMA is held to account to its community by a forum included on MMAʹs website where its community members can participate to its life by giving their opinion and sharing their experiences (ʺShare within your communityʺ). Also, clientsʹ representatives may submit written questions to members of the board of directors during general meetings held by MMA. 
   


20(c). Provide a description of the community-based purpose of the applied-for gTLD.

Table of Contents

1 - Intended registrants in the TLD 
2 - Intended end users of the TLD
3 - Related activities the applicant has carried out or intends to carry out inservice of this purpose
4 - Lasting nature of community-based purpose



Today, MMAʹs reference to ʺsocial networkʺ mainly refers to the world of internet. The web and internet are simply a reality for MMA. For French people, and for MMAʹs clients more specifically, internet is an integral part of their relation with MMA. MMAʹs websites (and included forums), MMAʹs Facebook page are the mean to participate by giving oneʹs opinion, sharing oneʹs comments, cooperating and exchanging information and experiences. For MMAʹs employees, agents and their employees, [email protected]émie platform is the place, since 2007, where MMAʹs family share knowledge, ideas, experiences and contributes to the construction of tomorrowʹs company! The purpose behind .mma is mainly to federate all MMAʹs community around one extension. MMAʹs new gTLD will permit to gather all internet tools used to communicate with MMAʹs community in a same and unique place, not to mention all other commercial, marketing and other benefits that we have presented in our application.   


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1 - Intended registrants in the TLD 
To be precise and specific, intended registrants in our scenario are persons and entities who will be eligible to have the use of domain names under the .mma extension (Domain Users) since only MMA will own those domain names (Single Registrant). This approach is due to MMAʹs will to ensure maximum security of its internet ʺislandʺ as explained in our application. Intended Domain Users are persons or entities having a privileged link with MMA (i.e. a social, economic and⁄or partnership relation) and which present a project in relation to the activities and⁄or needs of MMA and⁄or MMAʹs community. Domain Users can thus be any member of MMAʹs community i.e. agents, brokers, clients, etc.


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2 - Intended end users of the TLD
Intended end users are mainly all members of MMAʹs community but also all persons and entities having a particular interest in MMAʹs activities and commitments.


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3 - Related activities the applicant has carried out or intends to carry out inservice of this purpose

Since its creation, MMA has carried out every activity necessary to bring together its community. MMA established a presence on all the French territory allowing its community to have an accessible point of contact. It has also put in place tools and mechanism for its community to come together i.e. web forums, [email protected]émie platform, MMA Foundation for disabled persons, etc. as previously mentioned. Also MMA has always been transparent with its community and has taken all necessary measures to communicate, listen and put in action what its community wants particularly via internet. MMA is now willing to open its horizons and to carry out all activities necessary to best reach its purpose of bringing together its community. MMA promises its community to continue with the commitments it has taken and to further make other commitments and put them into action to ensure a strong and interactive community. Since only by reinforcing the relations between its community members can MMAʹs community best operate and fulfill its role both in the insurance world and in relation to other social, cultural, environmental and humanitarian activities.   


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4 - Lasting nature of community-based purpose
 
MMA is a mutual and an insurance company. Its activities are long lasting since risks are inherent to our lives and accidents will always happen. It is thus primordial to have insurance coverage and this services sector will not vanish. Therefore MMA, as a company, will always have services to offer and will always be there to participate to the improvement of its community in all fields. Nevertheless, to be able to do so, MMA is aware that only by having a strong and interactive community should its goals be achieved. .mma is the perfect tool to unit even further MMAʹs community today and in the coming years. 

20(d). Explain the relationship between the applied-for gTLD string and the community identified in 20(a).

Table of Contents

1 - Relation to the established name of the community
2 - Relationship to the identification of community members
3 - Connotation MMA may have beyond the community


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1 - Relation to the established name of the community

MMA is the brand name under which our company is known and registered. It is also our community name and thus it is our applied for gTLD. 


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2 - Relationship to the identification of community members

MMA, the company, is related to every member of the community. Each member of the MMA community identifies himself⁄herself⁄itself to MMA through a social, economic, partnership relationship. Therefore, community members feel involved when a reference to ʺmmaʺ is made: they are clients of MMA, employees of MMA, partners with MMA, etc. 


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3 - Connotation MMA may have beyond the community

The letters ʺmʺ and ʺmʺ and ʺaʺ as put together in the brand ʺMMAʺ, do not have any particular meaning in the French language or in any other language as far as we know. Nevertheless, the brand ʺMMAʺ in itself is the fourth spontaneously known insurance brand in France. 

20(e). Provide a description of the applicant's intended registration policies in support of the community-based purpose of the applied-for gTLD.

Table of Contents

1 - Eligibility : who is eligible and how is eligibility determined
2 - Name selection at second level
3 - Restrictions to use
4 - Enforcement



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1 - Eligibility : who is eligible and how is eligibility determined

WHO: Persons or entities having a privileged link with MMA (i.e. a social, economic and⁄or partnership relation) are eligible: these are members of MMAʹs community i.e. agents, brokers, clients, etc.

HOW: Eligibility is mainly determined through the existence of a project in relation to the activities and⁄or needs of MMA and⁄or MMAʹs community. Also persons, entities and project should be compliant with MMAʹs values and principles.  


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2 - Name selection at second level

MMA intends to use different categories of domain names at the second level. These categories include but are not limited to names of cities, MMAʹs business departments, services or activities and big projects such as one relative to MMA Foundation.


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3 - Restrictions to use  

MMA imposes certain restrictions to the content and use of domain names: content and use should not in any circumstances be contrary to public security or order or in breach of public morality, MMAʹs and MMAʹs community interests and values and third parties rights. In any event, any Domain User website should be compliant with MMAʹs instructions and graphical charter. 


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4 - Enforcement

To enforce the policies above, MMA put in place a point of contact (POC) and two commissions:
 * Delegation Commission of 2 members (ensures registration control); and 
 * Abuse Commission of 2 members (ensures abuse control), 
who will ensure a tight control over Domain users registration and use of domain names. 

Also specific policies and mechanisms are in place to ensure a prompt response and action upon complaints from third parties. For more information on POC, Control Commission and Abuse Complaint policies and mechanisms, please refer to question 28. 

Eligibility rules are mandatory in order to obtain the use of a domain name. Delegation Commission ensures that such rules and other rules regarding the use of a domain name are respected. For more information on Delegation Commission, please refer to question 29.
An appeal is possible as long as a written appeal is addressed to the Highest Representative of the Registry within a reasonable period. 

PLEASE FIND ATTACHED TWO (2) WRITTEN ENDORSEMENTS TO MMAʹS APPLICATION. 

20(f). Attach any written endorsements from institutions/groups representative of the community identified in 20(a).

Not Available

Geographic Names


21(a). Is the application for a geographic name?

No

Protection of Geographic Names


22. Describe proposed measures for protection of geographic names at the second and other levels in the applied-for gTLD.


Table of Contents

1 - Before the implementation of the new gTLD and before anny registration of .MMA domain names
1.1 - List of reserved terms such as defined in the Registry Agreement
1.2 - Terms with National or Geographic significance blocked upon demand
2 - Registration of the domain names including a geographic name
2.1 - Release of country and territory names
2.2 - Importance of names with a national or geographic significance in future use of the .mma TLD
3 - Procedures to avoid abuse of names with national or geographic significance



Although the intended .mma is not a Geographic Name as per the definitions of Module 2- Evaluations Procedures – 2.2.1.4.1 (Treatment of Country or Territory names) or 2.2.1.4.2 (Geographic Names requiring Government Support), MMA intends to incorporate GAC advice in their management of second level domain names and thus acknowledges:

* that governments and public authorities are responsible for public policy and that MMA will therefore abide by governments’ or public authorities’ recommendations.

* the importance of geographic names not only when registering the domain name but also as long as the domain name is in use.

* that there may exist some similarities with existing TLDs such as .ma (Morocco). Therefore, although we believe that the adjunction of a letter should avoid any likelihood of confusion, MMA has preferred to approach Morocco’s Government in order to anticipate any issue that may arise in relation to .mma.

Discussions are therefore currently ongoing with Morocco in order to obtain Moroccoʹs non objection to our .mma and to avoid potential difficulties related to the registration of .mma domains. The discussions so far are quite encouraging. In any event, after the delegation of our applied for .mma, MMA will remain available at any moment for discussions with Morocco in order to implement any measures necessary to secure better protection, if need be. For instance, Morocco could provide a list of reserved terms, including Moroccan geographic names, which could not be registered under .mma.

Should any other country express similar concerns, MMA will take the same approach and cooperate to the extent possible.


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1 - Before the implementation of the new gTLD and before anny registration of .MMA domain names

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1.1 - List of reserved terms such as defined in the Registry Agreement

According to the base Registry Agreement, MMA will reserve all names included in Specification 5, including Country and Territory Names:

ʺThe country and territory names contained in the following internationally recognized lists shall be initially reserved at the second level and at all other levels within the TLD at which the Registry Operator provides for registrations:

* the short form (in English) of all country and territory names contained on the ISO 3166- 1 list, as updated from time to time, including the European Union, which is exceptionally reserved on the ISO 3166-1 list, and its scope extended in August 1999 to any application needing to represent the name European Union http:⁄⁄www.iso.org⁄iso⁄support⁄country_codes⁄iso_3166_code_lists⁄iso-3166- 1_decoding_table.htm#EU;

* the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Technical Reference Manual for the Standardization of Geographical Names, Part III Names of Countries of the World; and

* the list of United Nations member states in 6 official United Nations languages prepared by the Working Group on Country Names of the United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names;

provided, that the reservation of specific country and territory names may be released to the extent that Registry Operator reaches agreement with the applicable government(s), provided, further, that Registry Operator may also propose release of these reservations, subject to review by ICANN’s Governmental Advisory Committee and approval by ICANNʺ.


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1.2 - Terms with National or Geographic significance blocked upon demand

Beyond this obligation, MMA also accepts the Principle in §2.7 - GAC Principles Regarding New gTLDs (dated March 28, 2007) of blocking, at no cost and upon demand of governments, public authorities or IGO, names with national or geographic significance at the second level of the .mma TLD as far as those principles apply to new gTLDs.

Inquiries will be received by the Registry and put on the reserved terms list. Terms placed on this list will be excluded of the pool of available domains.


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2 - Registration of the domain names including a geographic name

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2.1 - Release of country and territory names

Based on the .info procedure (recommended by GAC Chair in its letter dated September 9, 2003 and concerning Reservation of Country Names in dot Info) and subject to the abovementioned commitments, MMA will implement a methodology similar to the methodology developed for the reservation and release of country names in the .INFO top-level domain:

* Relevant government or public authority may inform the Registry and ICANN that they wish to register the name.

* The MMA Delegation Commission acknowledges receipt of the request and analyzes compliance with the MMAʹs eligibility conditions for domain names use.

Because of the community nature of the extension .mma:
* It is likely that Governments may not find any interest in the .mma extension.
* Even if a Government is keen on using such extension, it will have to comply with eligibility requirements to use a domain name under .mma.
* MMA may choose to put the domain name on a reserved list and may refuse to release the domain name.

* If the Government’s request complies with MMAʹs requirements, the domain name is registered in the name of the Single Registrant and the Domain User is allowed to use the domain name, insofar as it respects the .mma conditions.

In any event, any other release procedure will not occur unless:
* an agreement is reached with the relevant Government; and
* ICANNʹs GAC reviews the release proposition and ICANN gives its approval to such release.

------------------------
2.2 - Importance of names with a national or geographic significance in future use of the .mma TLD

MMA would like to draw ICANN’s attention to the importance of geographic names in the contemplated TLD. As stated previously in question 18, MMA is a Community including a network of professionals providing insurance services to the public. The Geographic scope of the services provided by such professionals is one of the key elements for internet users looking for MMAʹs services.

In other words, second level domain names may be organized according to a geographic structure: [paris.mma] or [marseille.mma], etc. in order to facilitate the localization of MMAʹs agencies and services by the public.

Therefore, the Delegation Commission will give special attention when granting the use of a second or third level domain name including a city name, even if this city name is not on the reserved list indicated by ICANN.

Regarding the limited geographic scope of MMAʹs community at the moment, MMAʹs Delegation Commission will for instance be especially careful concerning French names with a national or geographic significance such as city names, regions, protected appellation of origins, etc.

The registration of such domain names by the Single Registrant and the use of such domain names (within the strict framework of MMAʹs community and values) are deemed to avoid any misuse of a name with a national or geographic significance. After delegation, the use will be strongly controlled as developed hereunder in questions 28 and 29.


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3 - Procedures to avoid abuse of names with national or geographic significance

The national or geographic significance will be assessed by the Delegation Commission of MMA at the time of registration.

If a doubt arises, the Delegation Commission may contact the concerned public authorities to seek advice and eventually reach an agreement before registering the domain name if applicable.

Should a conflict arise about the national or geographic significance of a domain name which passed through the examination of the Delegation, the Abuse Point of Contact may be contacted by relevant authorities, such as governments, public authorities or IGOs and will ensure compliance with Authorities’ instructions.

The Abuse Point of Contact will proceed along the lines described in questions 28 and 29.

Registry Services


23. Provide name and full description of all the Registry Services to be provided.

Table of Contents :

1 - Receipt of data from registrars concerning registration of domain names and nameservers : Shared Registration System (SRS)
2 - Operation of the Registry zone servers
3 - Provision to registrars of status information relating to the zone servers for the TLD
3.1 - Standard DNS related status information
3.2 - Emergency DNS related status information
4 - Dissemination of TLD zone files.
4.1 - Incremental updates every 10 minutes
4.2 - Complete publication of the zone
4.3 - Propagation mechanism
4.4 - Zone File Access⁄Distribution
5 - Dissemination of contact or other information concerning domain name registrations (Whois service)
6 - Internationalized Domain Names
7 - DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)
7.1 - Registrar Services
7.2 - Signing Activity
8 - Other relevant services
8.1 - Security and Redundancy
8.2 - Consensus Policy Compliance


------------------------
1 - Receipt of data from registrars concerning registration of domain names and nameservers : Shared Registration System (SRS)

Operated by AFNIC, the .MMA TLD will adapt a domain shared registration system used in production by AFNIC to operate .fr zone and which has been fully functional for the past 15 years. This Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) based Shared Registration System (SRS) has exhibited the ability to meet stringent SLAs as well as to scale from the operational management of an initial thousands of domain names to over 2 million in late 2011.

The SRS exists to interact with the Registrar’s systems, who are responsible for the provisioning of a registrant’s domain name with the .MMA TLD registry. Registrars interact with the registry through two primary mechanisms :

* Communication machine to machine via an EPP client (Registrar) to an EPP Server API (Registry).

* A Web Portal Interface that expresses the functionality of the EPP API. The Web Portal also provides access to user configuration and other back-office functions such as report and invoice retrieval.

SRS functionality includes standard functions and features such as :

* Domain Registration : The AFNIC SRS supports synchronous registrations (creations) of domain names through the EPP domain create command. It supports updates of associative status, DNS and DNSSEC delegation information and EPP contact objects with a domain and the deletion of existing domains. This allows Registrars to create domain registrations, modify them and ultimately delete them.

* Domain Renewal : The AFNIC SRS allows registrars to renew sponsored domains using the EPP renew command. The SRS automatically renews domain names upon expiry.

* Transfer : The AFNIC SRS supports the transfer of a given domain between two Registrars in a secure fashion by requiring two party confirmations and the exchange of a token (the EPP authinfo code) associated with the domain.

* Contact Objects : The AFNIC SRS supports the creation, update, association to domain objects, and deletion of EPP contact objects. This functionality supports the required information to supply contact data displayed in Registration Data Directory Services (RDDS) (Whois) systems.

* Hosts : A subordinate object of the domain object in an EPP based SRS, internal hosts are supported in the AFNIC SRS. These hosts cannot be removed when other 2nd level domains within the .MMA TLD zone are delegated to these nameservers. Delegation must be removed prior to the removal of the child hosts and a parent domain name to a given host in turn cannot be removed prior to the deletion of the related child host.

* Redemption Grace Period (RGP) & Restoring deleted domain name registrations : AFNIC SRS supports the RGP for the purpose of retrieving erroneously deleted domain names prior to being made available again for public registration.

Other features include :

* Additional EPP commands in order to manage and update both domain and contact objects in the registry which are EPP info, check, delete and update commands.

* An inline billing system which is synchronised with the SRS. Actions can be taken daily from simple alerts to concrete account blocking.

* Grace Periods and Refunds : the AFNIC SRS will support standard grace periods such as Add, Renew, Autorenew, Transfer and RGP grace periods. Refunds issued will reflect actual values deducted from registrar’s balance in consideration of any rebates issued conjunctively or separately for the relevant domain registration.

* The capacity to deal with reserved domain name registration. Reserved names are stored in a specific back office tool. Specific authorisations codes can be delivered out of band by support team to “unlock” creation of these reserved names. SRS uses standard EPP auth_info field in conformity with EPP RFCs to prevent or allow the registration of the domain name.

[see attached diagram Q23_1_authorisation_code_workflow.pdf]
Diagram : Reserved names unlock
Description : This diagram illustrates process to unlock registration of reserved names. An out of band email process is used to deliver a specific authorisation_code, that can be used in EPP or through the web interface to register the domain name.

SRS EPP functions are compatible with the following list of RFCs :
RFCs 5910, 5730, 5731, 5732, 5733 and 5734. Since AFNIC will implement the Registry Grace Period (RGP), it will comply with RFC 3915 and the successors of the aforementioned RFCs.


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2 - Operation of the Registry zone servers

The DNS resolution service is a core business of the Registry Operator. It is an essential function that must be provided with a very high level of service quality to satisfy queries concerning a zone 100% of the time with a response time as short as possible.

As the registry back-end service provider for the .MMA TLD, AFNIC has a set of sites, distributed internationally, to answer these queries. The high availability of responses is ensured by the number of servers that host the zone information; the response time is in turn linked to the geographical location of the servers (as near as possible to the exchange points and as a result to users).

To ensure a very high level of availability of information and a response time as short as possible to a DNS query for a given zone, AFNIC has chosen to deploy its own DNS architecture, operated by our teams, while also relying on a set of internationally recognized service providers in order to significantly increase the number of servers hosting the zone to be published.

The AFNIC DNS service is based on the standards of RFCs (RFCs 1034, 1035, 1982, 2181, 2182, 2671, 3226, 3596, 3597, 4343, and 5966 and any future successors), related to the Internet, and the DNS in particular.

In addition, special attention has been paid to the security component of the DNS servers and services in order to maintain a very high level of availability of the information, for example in the event of attacks or the denial of services. At present, a series of national and international servers are deployed as close as possible to the exchange points to ensure the DNS resolution service. To ensure a high level of availability, Anycast technology is applied to overcome the issues involved in the geographical location of sensitive servers. Through an effective pooling of DNS server resources, it ensures better resistance to denial of service attacks as the number of physical servers to attack is very high, and the geographical attraction of traffic by each server is very strong. Maintenance of the nodes is also improved since interventions on a given server have no effect on the visibility of the Anycast cloud for users.
As explained in the answer to Question 34 (Geographic Diversity), the registry also relies on two operators of Anycast clouds to expand the international coverage of the DNS nodes which must respond to queries for the domain extensions hosted on them. The two operators are Netnod Autonomica and PCH (Packet Clearing House) who are both known for their high quality services; in addition, Netnod Autonomica hosts one the root server i.root-servers.net.


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3 - Provision to registrars of status information relating to the zone servers for the TLD

Registrars interactions with the Registry Systems in two states in regards to the state of the TLD zone servers :
* an operational state where normal registry transactions and operational policies⁄practices result in a cause and effect in resolution of relevant domains AND
* an emergency state where resolution could be threatened by operational problems due to either internal or external factors to the DNS services.

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3.1 - Standard DNS related status information

The SRS supports related updates to domain objects that allow a Registrar to populate internal (glue record) and or external DNS hosts associated with the domain. External hosts result in the correct associated NS records being inserted into the current TLD zone file, this in turns results in DNS resolution being delegated to the identified external hosts. The SRS expresses this status to the Registrar as “Active” in both the EPP API and the SRS Web Portal. The registrar may suspend the NS records associated with the external hosts by applying an EPP client HOLD in the system, which will also be displayed as a status in the same manner. This holds true of the Registry when it applied “Server Hold”. Internal hosts follow the same behaviour with one exception, IP addresses must also be provided to the SRS by the registrar for Internal hosts, resulting in A records or⁄and AAAA records for IPv6 (also known as glue records) being added to the zone file.

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3.2 - Emergency DNS related status information

AFNIC registry services maintain emergency Network Operation Center (NOC) and Customer Service personnel on a 24⁄7⁄365 basis to address escalation and customer issue management. Part of these teams responsibility is to maintain contact lists for technical notification of regular or emergency situations including email lists, names and contact numbers. In the unlikely event that DNS resolution or DNS updates were or were expected to fall out of ICANN mandated SLAs, registrars will be contacted proactively by their email lists, status alerts will be posted to the Registry Operator’s Registrar Relations Web Portals and Customer Service personnel will be prepared to take and address calls on the current DNS status.


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4 - Dissemination of TLD zone files.

Publication of DNS resolution data to the TLD DNS nodes serving resolution :
One of the main challenges of DNS resolution is to provide updated information about the resources associated with a registered domain name. As soon as information is updated by a registrar on behalf of a customer, the latter expects the server to be accessible to its users as soon as possible.
For this reason, updates of DNS resolution data (publication) are entered into the AFNIC SRS, subsequently generated into incremented zone files, and are distributed to the authoritative DNS servers using the two following methods :
* Incremental updates every 10 minutes
and
* Complete publication of the zone.

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4.1 - Incremental updates every 10 minutes

The principle of publication by Dynamic Update (RFC 2136 and 2137) is designed to publish only the changes to the zone that have occurred since the last update. At the registry level, we have opted to propagate every 10 minutes the changes made during the last 10 minutes on all the zones managed. In this way, any changes made will naturally be published in the next 10 minutes.

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4.2 - Complete publication of the zone

In addition to the publication described above, the registry’s DNS operations team produces a complete publication of all the data for all the zones once a week by running a series of computer scripts which regenerates zonefile from database, through the same validation and integrity mechanisms as dynamic publication. This is used as a training for eventual recovery measures to be triggered.

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4.3 - Propagation mechanism

Whether during the publication by Dynamic Update or complete publication, the propagation mechanism is the same. The process involving the generation of the various zone files is triggered, without blocking any operation on the registration system.
These zone files are then transmitted in full to the authoritative server, via the AXFR protocol in conformance with RFC 5936. Once received and processed by the authoritative server, notifications are sent to secondary servers that will retrieve the changes in the different zones via the IXFR protocol in conformity with RFC 1995. The choice of an incremental (rather than complete) update of the zone files to the secondary servers during the dissemination process has been made to avoid sending large amounts of data to remote sites.

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4.4 - Zone File Access⁄Distribution

In compliance with Specification 4, Section 2, AFNIC registry services will offer a subscription service for qualifying applicants to download a stateful copy of the TLD zone file no more than once per 24 hours period. Distribution of the zone file will occur through the ICANN authorized Centralized Zone Data Access Provider.


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5 - Dissemination of contact or other information concerning domain name registrations (Whois service)

The AFNIC RDDS (Whois) service is in direct connection with the database of the Shared Registration System and offers access to the public administrative and technical data of the TLD. Contact data associated with registrations in the SRS is accessible both on port 43 (following specifications of RFC 3912) and through web access.

Data that can be accessed through the RDDS include:
* contact data : registrant, administrative, technical, billing
* domain data : domain name, status
* host data : name servers, IP addresses
* ephemeris : creation, expiration dates
* registrar data
These data elements are fully compliant to the mapping of RFCs 5730 to 5734.

Both web and port 43 RDDS offer natively compliance with privacy law with a “restricted diffusion” flag. This option is activated through EPP (see Question 25 (EPP)) while creating or updating a contact and automatically understood by the Whois server to anonymize the data. The choice to activate restricted diffusion is made in compliance with the policy and the local rules of the TLD.

This service is accessible both in IPv4 and IPv6. The AFNIC RDDS service access is rate limited to ensure performance in the event of extreme query volumes generated in the cases of distributed denial of service (DDOS) and⁄or RDDS data-mining activities.

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6 - Internationalized Domain Names


Based on AFNIC’s Back-end registry’s operation experience, the .MMA TLD will allow registration of IDN domain names in full compliance with RFCs 5890 to 5893 and based on the character set described in detail in our answer to Question 44 (IDN). This feature will be available upon launch of the TLD and will be implemented following the policies presented in detail in our answer to Question 44 (IDN). For the purpose of clarity, a brief summary of this information is presented below.

The list of characters includes the French language as well as several other regional languages in use in France : Occitan, Breton, Frankish, Reunion Creole, Catalan, Corsican and Guadeloupe Creole. The list consists of some of the characters of the Latin1 standard (ISO-8859-1) and the Latin9 standard (ISO-8859-15), respectively in Unicode Latin-1 Supplement and Latin Extended-A blocks.


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7 - DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC).

AFNIC registry services fully support DNSSEC and will sign the .MMA TLD zone from initiation into the root servers.

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7.1 - Registrar Services

Operations are available for registrars through EPP with the SecDNS EPP extension version 1.1 exclusively (as defined in RFC 5910) or through registrars extranet (with a web form). Among the two interfaces defined in the RFC 5910, AFNIC chose the “dsData” interface : domain names keys are solely under registrars management and are not exchanged, only the keys hashes (DS records) are sent by the registrars to the registry back-end service provider. Each domain name can be associated to 6 distinct key materials at most.

Zonecheck : A complementary monitoring and validation service.
AFNIC notes that “Zonecheck” is a DNS monitoring and validation service that is outside standard registry services and could be offered by third parties other than a Registry Operator. In respect of DNSSEC monitoring, each change of DS data related to a domain name is verified by the AFNIC ZoneCheck tool, out of band of standard EPP registry functions. Registrar are notified via email of detected errors. This helps Registrars ensure the DNSSEC validation will operate correctly, for example by avoiding the “Security Lameness” scenario outlined in section 4.4.3 of RFC 4641.

Registrar transfer by default removes DS data from the zonefile. This is done to cover cases when a current signed domain names goes from a DNSSEC enabled registrar to another registrar that is not yet prepared to handle DNSSEC materials (the registrar can also be the DNS hoster or not, but in both cases DS data of the domain name has to flow from the registrar to the registry, hence the registrar must have the technical capabilities to do so).

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7.2 - Signing Activity


Each public-facing DNS server operated by AFNIC or through its anycast providers is fully DNSSEC enabled through RFC 4033, 4034, and 4035 by virtue of using standard open source software (BIND & NSD) that are developed according to these RFCs.

Each zone uses a standard Key Signing Key (KSK)⁄Zone Signing Key (ZSK) split (as defined in RFC 4641, section 3.1), which enables longer KSKs and frequent re-signing of zone content to deter DNSSEC-related brute force attacks and to make sure that keys rollovers are part of registry staff operational habits. All keys are created using RSA algorithms, as defined in RFC 4641 section 3.4 : KSKs are 2048 bits long (as recommended for “high value domains” in section 3.5 of RFC 4641), and ZSKs are 1024 bits. Algorithm SHA-256 (as defined in RFC 4509) is used for DS generations. Signatures of zone resources records are done using SHA-2 and more specifically RSA⁄SHA-256 as defined by RFC 5702.

Each zone has its set of dedicated KSKs and ZSKs: one of each is active at all time, while a second of each is ready to be used at next rollover. A third ZSK may be kept in the zone after being inactive (not used any more for signing) to ease transitions and make sure DNS caches can still use it to verify old resource records signatures. Following recommendations in section 4.1.1 “Time considerations” of RFC 4641, with a zone maximum TTL being 2 days and a zone minimum TTL of 1.5 hour, ZSK rollovers are done each 2 months, KSK rollovers are done each 2 years. Their expirations are monitored. Rollovers are operated according to the “Pre-Publish Key Rollover” procedure detailed in section 4.2.1.1 of RFC 4641.

1 year worth of key materials is generated in advance. Encrypted backup of keys is made on Hardware Security Module (HSM) cards (Storage Master Key), which are securely stored physically.


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8 - Other relevant services

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8.1 - Security and Redundancy

AFNIC maintains primary and secondary datacenter locations as well as redundant key personal operating locations. High availability of AFNIC Registry infrastructure is provided through the implementation of either load‐balancing, or fail­‐over capacity in various layers of the architecture. It also enables fast scalability through expertise in virtualization technologies. AFNIC’s infrastructure is globally virtualized apart from services requiring very high performance rate and⁄or specific access to dedicated CPU for demanding computation such as DNSSEC zone signing or databases.
AFNIC maintains robust secure policies, protocols and third party testing and certification of security measures and practises. Systems involved in the AFNIC registry services used standard multi-factor authentication, high encryption transmission of data and are kept current with industry advancement in security technologies and best practices in prevention of data breaches. Registry systems follow standard EPP practices including required passphrases associated with each domain object and the use of those passphrases to successfully negotiate and verify domain transfers. Registrars are networked source restricted (2 IP addresses authorized by registrar) for SRS access in addition to the use of digital certificates and contact to Customer Service is restricted to registered Registrar personnel only (identified by personal passphrases⁄credentials listed on file).

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8.2 - Consensus Policy Compliance

AFNIC registry services will fully comply with Specification 1 of the Application Guidebook, below is a list of current consensus policies that have cause and effect on the systems of a registry operator. This list will be updated from time to time as per the ICANN process and the AFNIC registry services will be adjusted to maintain and support full compliance.

* Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (adopted by ICANN Board 26 August 1999; form of implementation documents approved 24 October 1999).
* Inter-Registrar Transfer Policy (effective on 12 November 2004, adopted by ICANN Board 25 April 2003; implementation documents issued 13 July 2004).
* Registry Services Evaluation Policy (effective on 15 August 2006, adopted by ICANN Board 8 November 2005; implementation documents posted 25 July 2006)
* AGP Limits Policy (effective on 1 April 2009, adopted by ICANN Board on 26 June 2008; implementation documents posted 17 December 2008)


Demonstration of Technical & Operational Capability


24. Shared Registration System (SRS) Performance

Table of Contents

1 - Global description
2 - Shared Registration System (SRS) architecture
3 - SRS architecture diagram
4 - Detailed infrastructure
5 - Rate limitation
6 - Interconnectivity and synchronization with other systems
7 - Performance and scalability
8 - Resources
8.1 - Initial implementation
8.2 - On-going maintenance


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1 - Global description

As one of the critical registry functions, the SRS is part of the core of AFNIC back-end registry solution as deployed to fit the needs of the .MMA TLD.
It both provides services for registrars and generates the data used for DNS publication and resolution service. In that aspect, it is responsible for most of the SLA’s to be respected. The following description will provide full and detailed description of the architecture of the SRS both from an application and from an infrastructure point of view.
This architecture is the same as the one used in production by AFNIC to operate .fr zone and has been fully functional for the last 15 years, with the ability to meet stringent SLAs as well as to scale from the management of a few thousands domain names in operations to over 2 million in late 2011.


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2 - Shared Registration System (SRS) architecture

AFNIC SRS is based on a three-layer architecture : front-end, business logic, middleware.
These three layers are supported by the data layer which is described in detail in Question 33 (Database Capabilities).

= Front end : Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) and extranet =

The automated front-end of the SRS is EPP.
The EPP interface and implementation complies with RFCs 3735 and 5730-5734. It is itself described in detail in Question 25 (EPP).
An extranet web interface also offers the same functions as the EPP interface.
Both theses interfaces are supported by the same middleware layer.

= Business logic : flexible policies =

The Business logic enables configurability in order to allow for the adjustment of registry systems to the chosen registry policies. Various policy-related parameters such as delay for redemption, access rate-limiting and penalties can be configured in this layer.
The Business logic also incorporates a scheduler which provides for semi-automated processes with human validation in order to address specific policy needs which cannot or should not be fully automated.

= Middleware : a guaranty for evolution and scalability =

The Middleware layer guarantees a consistent and registry oriented access for all the TLD data. All registry applications operate through this layer in order to centralize object management rules. It enables access through different programming languages (Java, php and Perl in AFNIC solution) with same rules and ease of switching from one language to another in case of application refactoring or migration.

= Data =

The Data layer is the structured data repository for domain, contact, operations, historization of transactions, as well as registrars and contracts data. It provides all the necessary resilient mechanisms to ensure 100% uptime and full recovery and backup.
It also provides a complete toolbox for the fine tuning of the various applications. This layer is described in more details in Question 33 (Database capacities).


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3 - SRS architecture diagram

[see attached diagram Q24_3_SRS_architecture_diagram.pdf]
Diagram : SRS architecture diagram
Description : This diagram shows global interaction between Internet, DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) and private network zones. Topology of network and servers is illustrated including dedicated IP address scheme and network flows.

This diagram does not shows additional sandbox and preproduction services. These services are offered respectively for registrars and back-end developer team to stabilize developments before production delivery. They are fully iso-functional to the SRS description above.

= SRS logical diagram =

Our robust infrastructure shows dual Internet Service Provider (ISP) connectivity both in IPv4 and IPv6 (Jaguar and RENATER), redundant firewall and switching infrastructure. This part of the architecture is mutualised for all TLDs hosted.

The networking architecture dedicates LAN for administration, backup and production.

Servers are hosted on different network zones : database for database, private for servers not visible on the internet and public for external servers visible on the DMZ. Dedicated zones are also set up for monitoring servers, administration servers or desktop and backup servers.
Each server is load balanced and the service is not impacted by the loss of one server, the capacity of each server being sized to be able to host the whole traffic.

Servers hosting the .MMA TLD are shared with up to an estimated number of 20 TLDs of comparable scale and use case.

= SRS physical diagram =

The IP scheme used is the following :

2001:67c:2218:1::4:0⁄64 for IPv6 Internet homing
192.134.4.0⁄24 for Ipv4 Internet homing

Production LAN

192.134.4.0⁄24 for public network IP range
10.1.50.0⁄24, 10.1.30.0⁄24 for private network IP ranges distributed on the zones described above.


Backup LAN

172.x.y.0⁄24 : x is different on each network zone. y is fixed to the value of the associated production LAN in the same zone (for example Private zone production LAN being 10.1.”50”.0⁄24, Private zone backup LAN is 172.16.”50”.0⁄24)

Administration LAN

172.z.y.0⁄24 : z is the value of x+1, x being the digit chosen for the corresponding Backup LAN in the same zone. y is fixed to the value of the associated production LAN in the same zone (for example Private zone production LAN being 10.1.”50”.0⁄24, Private zone administration LAN is 172.17.”50”.0⁄24).

Hot standby of the production database is automatically taken into account by the SRS Oracle Transparent Network Substrate configuration. Therefore if the database are migrated in hot standby due to failure of part of the system, the SRS access is automatically swapped to the new base.


------------------------
4 - Detailed infrastructure

The SRS modules play a central role in the back-end registry infrastructure. This is highlighted in terms of capacity expenditures (CAPEX) by the fact that SRS modules account for approximately 30% of the global CAPEX of the solution.

In the following description “server” will refer to either a physical or a virtual server.
Due to very fast growth of performance in storage and processors technologies, the infrastructure described below could be replaced by more powerful one available at the time of the set up for the same cost.

At the applicative and system level, AFNIC’s SRS systems are shared with up to an estimated number of 20 TLDs of comparable scale and use case.

AFNIC has invested in very efficient VMWare Vsphere virtualization infrastructure. It provides a flexible approach to recovery both through quick activation of a new fresh server in case of local failure (cold standby) and through global failover to a mirrored infrastructure on another site.
This comes in addition to natural redundancy provided by the load balanced servers.

Nevertheless, internal protocols and best practices for server virtualization have shown that very high I⁄O-intensive (Input⁄Output) application servers are not good clients for virtualization. The SRS is therefore hosted on virtualized infrastructure to the exception of the database, which presents very high rate of I⁄O, and is hosted on a dedicated physical infrastructure.

The whole SRS service is located in the primary datacenter used by AFNIC in production, the secondary datacenter serves as failover capacity.

The Front end is hosted on two load balanced virtual servers and two load balanced reverse proxies ensuring authentication of registrars.

The Business logic is hosted on two load balanced dedicated virtual servers. Scalability of these servers is ensured by quick resizing offered by virtualization technology if needed.

The Middleware is hosted on two load balanced dedicated virtual servers. It can be extended to any amount of servers needed to ensure performance commensurate with the amount of traffic expected. The dual use of Apache HAproxy and of a centralized lock mechanism ensure good queuing of each request in the system despite heavy load and parallelized middleware data access.

Scalability of all these servers are ensured by quick resizing offered by virtualization technology if needed.

All databases are based on Oracle technologies. The main database is replicated logically on two sites. Full local recovery processes are in place in case of loss of integrity through the Oracle redolog functions which provides full recovery by replay of historized logged requests.

The whole SRS service is located in the primary Tier 3 datacenter used by AFNIC in production, the secondary datacenter serves as failover capacity. Continuity mechanisms at a datacenter level are described in Questions 34 (Geographic Diversity), 39 (Registry Continuity) and 41 (Failover testing).

The detailed list of infrastructures involved can be described as follows :

This infrastructure is designed to host up to an estimated number of 20 TLDs of comparable scale and use case.


= Virtual servers =

EPP proxy : 2 servers
* Processor: 1 bi-core CPU
* Main memory: 8 GB of RAM
* Operating system: RedHat RHEL 6
* Disk space: 500 GB

EPP service : 2 servers
* Processor: 1 quad-core CPU
* Main memory: 16 GB of RAM
* Operating system: RedHat RHEL 6
* Disk space: 1 TB

Business logic : 2 servers
* Processor: 1 bi-core CPU
* Main memory: 16 GB of RAM
* Operating system: RedHat RHEL 6
* Disk space: 500 GB

Data Gateway : 2 servers
* Processor: 1 quad-core CPU
* Main memory: 16 GB of RAM
* Operating system: RedHat RHEL 6
* Disk space: 1 TB

= Data storage : see Question 33 (Database Capabilities) =

= Physical server =

Rate limiting database : 1 server
* Processor: 1 bi-core CPU
* Main memory: 8 GB of RAM
* Operating system: RedHat RHEL 6
* Disk space: 500 GB

Back up servers, backup libraries, Web whois server : mutualized with the global registry service provider infrastructure

= Additionnal infrastructure =

Failover infrastructure : 6 servers
* 1 bi-core CPU, 8 GB of RAM, RedHat RHEL 6, 500 GB

Sandbox infrastructure : 6 servers
* 1 bi-core CPU, 8 GB of RAM, RedHat RHEL 6, 500 GB

Preproduction infrastructure : 1 server
* 1 quad-core CPU, 16 GB of RAM, RedHat RHEL 6, 1 TB


------------------------
5 - Rate limitation

To ensure resiliency of the SRS a rate limitation and penalty mechanisms are in place.
Rate limitation and penalties are directly implemented on the front end server.

Access is rate limited through token-bucket algorithms with rate-limiting IP data stored on a dedicated database.
Penalties are applied as follow :
* Any command that follows a login command is immediately executed but the next one is only taken into account 2 seconds later. The following commands are not penalized (unless they do not follow one of the limitation rules).
* For the same domain name, the domain:check commands will not be able to follow themselves more than 2 times every 4 seconds. Beyond this rate, a 2 second penalty will be applied on the following domain:check commands (for the same domain name). For instance, it is possible to have a domain:check follow a domain:create command that already followed a first domain:check on a same domain name without any penalty.
* On the other hand, a customer making several domain:check commands on a same domain name will need to respect a 4 second delay between the first and the third call if he wishes not to be penalized.
* Any domain:create command on an already existing domain name induce an additional 2 seconds in the answer time of this command.
* Any domain:info command on a domain name that is not in your portfolio and for which you do not indicate the auth_info induce an additional 1 second in the answer time of this command.

The rate limiting database is hosted on one physical dedicated physical server. This server represents no failure point as a failure of the rate limiting system doesn’t affect the service (a standard uniform limitation is then applied instead of intelligent rate limiting).


------------------------
6 - Interconnectivity and synchronization with other systems

= Whois (RDDS) =

The whois service will be described in detail in Question 26 (Whois). It is hosted on two servers directly connected to the main production database through read only API. Data updated by the SRS are immediately visible in the Whois with no further synchronisation needed. Rate limitation is applied on RDDS service to avoid any load on the database due to Whois direct access. Hot standby of the production database is automatically taken into account by the Whois Oracle Transparent Network Substrate configuration. Therefore if SRS and database are migrated in hot standby due to failure of part of the system, the Whois service is automatically swapped to the new architecture.


= Back office⁄billing⁄Escrow =

Back-office, escrow and billing system is hosted on mutualized server. It operates directly on production data through the middleware layer to ensure integrity of data. These can be considered as fully synchronous applications. Hot standby of the production database is automatically taken into account by the Middleware layer Transparent Network Substrate configuration. Therefore if SRS and database are migrated in hot standby due to failure of part of the system, the back office and billing service are automatically swapped to the new architecture.


= Monitoring =

Monitoring is operated through probes and agents scanning systems with a 5 minutes period. The monitoring system gets snmp data from all servers described in the SRS architecture and also from dedicated Oracle monitoring agent for the database. A specific prove for EPP simulating a full domain creation is also activated, still with the 5 minutes period.

= Dispute resolution =

Any operation on domain names triggered in the context of a dispute resolution is made through a back-office tool (see Back office)

= DNS publication =

DNS publication relies on a specific table of the production database hosted on the same oracle instance. These data are directly generated by the SRS system. Dynamic Update batches are generated at each operation. The use of theses batches for DNS Dynamic update or of the whole data for full zonefile generation are made directly from these production data. No further synchronization is needed. The detail of frequency and workflow for dns publication is described in Question 35 (DNS) and Question 32 (Architecture). Hot standby of the production database is automatically taken into account by the DNS publication Transparent Network Substrate configuration. Therefore if SRS and database are migrated in hot standby due to failure of part of the system, the dns publication is automatically swapped to the new architecture.


------------------------
7 - Performance and scalability

The Registry’s SRS offers high level production SLAs and derives from the branch of systems that have evolved over the last 15 years to successfully operate a set of french ccTLDs.

The Registry’s SRS is used to operate .fr, .re, .yt, .pm, .tf, .wf TLDs. It is used by more than 800 registrars in parallel managing more than 2 millions domain names.

AFNIC’s SRS is designed to meet ICANN’s Service-level requirements as specified in Specification 10 (SLA Matrix) attached to the Registry Agreement.

Actual and current average performance of AFNIC’s SRS is :
* SRS availability : 99,4%
* SRS session-command RTT : 400ms for 99,4% of requests
* SRS query command RTT : 500ms
* SRS transform command RTT : 1,4 s on availability period
* SRS max downtime : 2 hours⁄month

As described in Question 31 (Technical Overview) in relation to each of the phases of the TLD’s operations, the following transaction loads are expected on the SRS :
* launch phase : up to 1,200 queries⁄hour
* routine ongoing operations : up to 1,400 queries⁄hour

The system is designed to handle up to 50,000 domain names and up to 2 requests per second.

The targeted TLD size being approximately 700 domain names after 3 years of operations and the expected peak transaction rate being 1,400 queries⁄hour, this ensures that enough capacity is available to handle the launch phase, unexpected demand peaks, as well as rapid scalability needs.

Capacity planning indicators are set up to anticipate exceptional growth of the TLD.
Technologies used enables quick upgrade on all fields :
* Servers : virtual resizing to add CPUs or disk space if resource is available on the production ESX servers. If not, 2 spare additional ESX servers can be brought live if additional performance is needed.
* Database : database capacity has been greatly oversized to avoid need of replacement of this physical highly capable server. Precise capacity planning will ensure that sufficient delay will be available to acquire new server if needed. A threshold of 40% of CPU use or total storage capacity triggers alert for acquisition.


------------------------
8 - Resources

Four categories of profiles are needed to run the Registry’s Technical Operations : Registry Operations Specialists (I), Registry Systems Administrators (II), Registry Software Developer (III) and Registry Expert Engineers (IV). These categories, skillset and global availability of resources have been detailed in Question 31 (Technical Overview of Proposed Registry) including specific resources set and organisation to provide 24⁄7 coverage and maintenance capacity.
Specific workload for SRS management is detailed below.

------------------------
8.1 - Initial implementation

The set up is operated on the pre-installed virtualization infrastructure. It implies actions by system, database and network administrators to create the virtual servers and install the applicative packages.

Then, developers, assisted by a team of experts and senior staff members apply proper configuration for the given TLD. Specific policy rules are configured and tested.

The initial implementation effort is estimated as follows :

Database Administrator 0.03 man.day
Network Administrator 0.03 man.day
System Administrator 0.03 man.day
Software Developer 0.10 man.day
Database Engineer 0.10 man.day
Software Engineer 0.20 man.day
DNS Expert Engineer 0.10 man.day

------------------------
8.2 - On-going maintenance


On-going maintenance on the SRS includes integration of new policy rules, evolution of technology, bug fixing, infrastructure evolution, failover testing.

Although all the defined technical profiles are needed for such on-going maintenance operations, on a regular basis, it is mainly a workload handled by monitoring and development teams for alert management and new functional developments, respectively.

The on-going maintenance effort per year is estimated as follows, on a yearly basis :

Operations Specialist 0.40 man.day
Database Administrator 0.10 man.day
Network Administrator 0.10 man.day
System Administrator 0.10 man.day
Software Developer 0.20 man.day
Database Engineer 0.05 man.day
Network Engineer 0.05 man.day
System Engineer 0.05 man.day
Software Engineer 0.05 man.day

25. Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)

Table of Contents

1 - Global description
2 - Description of commands
2.1 - Introduction
2.2 - Global commands
2.2.1 - session management commands ‘greeting’, ‘hello’, ‘login’, ‘logout’
2.2.2 - poll command ‘poll’
2.3 - domain commands
2.3.1 - query commands ‘check’, ‘info’
2.3.2 - transform commands
2.4 - contact command
2.5 - Return Codes
3 - Compliance to RFCs
3.1 - Delivery process
3.2 - XML validation
3.3 - Cross checking
4 - Specific extensions
4.1 - Specific extension : DNSSEC
4.2 - Specific extension : IDN
4.3 - Specific extension : Sunrise period
4.3.1 - New objects
4.3.2 - command extensions
4.3.2.1 - EPP Query Commands
4.3.2.2 - EPP Transform Commands
4.3.2.2.1 - EPP ʹcreateʹ Command
4.3.2.2.2 - EPP ʹupdateʹ Command
4.3.2.2.3 - EPP ʹdeleteʹ Command
5 - Resources
5.1 - Initial implementation
5.2 - On-going maintenance


------------------------
1 - Global description

The main service of the Shared Registration System (SRS) for its registrars is the Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) interface. The interface has been developed and is maintained in full compliance with the relevant standards RFCs 5730-5732 and with RFCs 5910 and 3735 for the standard registration interface. Contacts are handled as described in RFC 5733. Transport is guaranteed according to RFC 5734. In addition, AFNIC’s EPP implementation is also compliant with RFCs 4034, 5730 and 5731 for DNSSEC support and with RFCs 5890 and 5891 for Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) support.

The EPP service is available through IPv4 and IPv6, based on a SSL certificate authentication.
No specific extension is used.

Note : Throughout the document we write the XML markups describing the EPP requests between the two characters ʹ and ʹ.

For contact management, the registry service provider uses a dedicated “Repository Identifier” for each TLD, this Repository identifier being declared to IANA prior to the launch of the TLD. It is also used as a post-extension to contact nic-handles, each contact for a given TLD being then identified by a unique code XX1234-REPID. An example of this declaration can be found for .fr extension (2008-05-10) at IANA epp repository identifier’s page :

[...]
NORID, #x004E #x004F #x0052 #x0049 #x0044 UNINETT Norid AS 2007-12-10 info&norid.no
FRNIC, #x0046 #x0052 #x004e #x0049 #x0043 AFNIC 2008-05-29 tld-tech&afnic.fr
CIRA, #x0043 #x0049 #x0052 #x0041 Canadian Internet Registration Authority 2009-07-22 info&cira.ca
[...]


------------------------
2 - Description of commands

------------------------
2.1 - Introduction

The EPP interface, based on a double system of real-time answer by the server and asynchronous notifications, implements all standard operations : ‘domain:create’ (1 to 10 years), ‘domain:info’, ‘domain:checkʹ, ‘domain:transfer’, ‘domain:update’, ‘domain:renew’. Similar commands are available concerning contact objects.
The registry’s EPP server implement name servers management as domain name attributes in conformity with RFC 5732.

[see attached diagram Q25_2.1_EPP_xsd_main_schema.pdf]
Diagram : EPP xsd main schema
Description : Registry service provider SRS EPP interface is based on standard xsd schema as defined in RFC 5730.

In the following description of the commands, an example of client command and server answer has been added only for the create command as an example. All other commands work in the same way in full compliance with descriptions and schema of RFCs 5730-5734 and same examples can be found in the RFCs text.

------------------------
2.2 - Global commands

------------------------
2.2.1 - session management commands ‘greeting’, ‘hello’, ‘login’, ‘logout’

As all of these commands are basic and totally compliant with the IETF’s STD69 (RFCs 5730 to 5734), they have not be described again here.

Focus points are :
* Enforcing a limit of 2 simultaneous connection per registrar (checked at login), ensuring equitable access for all registrars.
* List of namespaces announced in ʹgreetingʹ is strictly checked in registrar ʹloginʹ command.
* ʹhelloʹ can be used by registrars as a keepalive command, otherwise inactive sessions are closed by server after 20 minutes.

------------------------
2.2.2 - poll command ʹpollʹ

For some operation on objects, notifications are added in a queue that can be read by using the ʹpollʹ command. The use of the ʹpollʹ command will retrieve the oldest message in the queue. The number of messages awaiting in the queue is indicated at each command answer with the ʹmsgQʹ element. To delete a message from the queue, the ʹpollʹ command should be used with the message number as indicated in RFC 5730.

------------------------
2.3 - domain commands

------------------------
2.3.1 - query commands ʹcheckʹ, ʹinfoʹ

ʹcheckʹ command allows the client to check if a domain object is available.
ʹinfoʹ command allows the client to retrieve information on any objects (domain names or contacts) that are indicated in the command. Registrars can only use this command for objects they already manage in their portfolio. This command can also be used for domain names outside the registrar’s portfolio if the ʹauth_infoʹ code that protects the domain is given as well.

------------------------
2.3.2 - transform commands

In compliance with RFCs 5730 (commands presentation), 5731 (domain objects), 5732 (contact objects) and 5910 (DNSSEC specifications) AFNIC’s Registry solution use the following commands that allow for objects updates :

= ʹcreateʹ =

The EPP protocol (RFC 5730) allows domain name creation (RFC 5731). The registry service provider allows two types of creations: direct domain creations (with auth_info freely determined by the registrar) and domain names creation “with authorization code” (the correct auth_info value must be sent for the creation to succeed)

Both are standard domain:create command as defined in the RFCs.

[see attached diagram Q25_2.3.2_EPP_create_command_example.pdf]
Diagram : EPP client create command and server answer example
Description : This is a standard EPP client create command following RFC 5731. Parameters sent in the following example are domain name, period of registration, registrant identifier, administrative, technical and billing identifier, and auth_info password followed by standard EPP server create command answer compliant with RFC 5731. Parameters sent in the answer are result code, message, creation and expiry date, and client and server transaction ID.

Creation “with authorization code” enables the registry service provider to manage protected names or names under specific registration conditions. An authorization code is associated to three items (the registrar, the domain name and the holder nic-handle ) and is delivered outside the automated process through a manual process defined by a specific policy rule. The registry-generated authorization code must be present in the ʹdomain:authInfoʹ item of the creation request. No registrar-computed value is permitted.
In every case, domain creation proceeds through standard EPP command.

[see attached diagram Q25_2.3.2_SRS_authorisation_code.pdf]
Diagram : SRS authorisation code
Description : The EPP auth_info field that can usually be freely filled in by the registrar has a specific use for registration of reserved names : an authorisation_code is delivered through an out of band process and must be used in the create command for the answer to be successful.

= ʹupdateʹ =

The registry offers EPP ʹdomain:updateʹ command to :
* update the administrative, technical, registrant contacts of a domain name
* update the DNS and DNSsec configuration of a domain name
* update the status of a domain name or its auth_info

This command is also used to add or delete signed delegations (DS records), through a ʹsecDNS:updateʹ extension if DNSSEC operations are wanted and if the secDNS extension was chosen by the client at login.

When requested the status of domain name is changed to “pendingUpdate”.

= ʹdeleteʹ =

The whole deletion process (including redemption grace period and pending delete) of a domain name comes with a restoration mechanism (restore). This mechanism, based on RFC 3915, is applied to the deletion operation only.

The status of the domain name is switched to ʺpendingDeleteʺ for the total duration of the ʺredemption grace periodʺ and as long as the domain is not restored or totally deleted.

= ʹtransferʹ =

The registry offers standard EPP ʹdomain:transferʹ command to allow a change of registrar to the registrant.

A transfer can be initiated only by an incoming registrar and using the auth_info that the registrant has given him. This standard mechanism acts as a security and associates the triggering of transfer to the acceptance of the owner of the domain.
The transfer operation can be triggered only if the domain is not protected by a clientTransferProhibited lock.

The transfer implementation follows RFC 5730 section 2.9.3.4 and its lifecycle follow the inter registrar transfer policy as revised by the ICANN in 2008.

------------------------
2.4 - contact command

Postal addresses are managed as indicated in RFC 5731 with the following specific rules : only the type “loc” for postal addresses is accepted and only one element of type ʹcontact:postalInfoʹ can be indicated for the contact .

ʹdiscloseʹ parameters is implemented and enables to activate restricted publication in the RDDS.
The choice to activate restricted diffusion is made in compliance with the policy and the local rules of the TLD towards privacy law.

------------------------
2.5 - Return Codes

Some operations under normal working conditions of the SRS will answer with a 1000 return code. Otherwise, two different levels of return codes have been chosen according to the two different types of problems that can happen on the SRS :
* minor problems answer with Return code 1001 : Minor problems do not affect requests reception. This code indicates the command was taken into account but that its complete execution is delayed. The final result will be known later on and will be sent in a message placed in the notification queue of the concerned registrar(s).
* blocking problems answer with Return code 2400 “command failed” : no operations that transform a domain name can be taken into account.

------------------------
3 - Compliance to RFCs

The system has been launched compliant with RFCs. Mechanisms are in place to ensure that ongoing maintenance and new functional delivery stay compliant with RFCs.

------------------------
3.1 - Delivery process

The SRS evolutions are developed on the development environment.
The development process implies strict coding rules and use of shared best practices. Pair programming is standard practice. Unit test are developed prior to function development to ensure resiliency of the produced code.

Delivery process take place in four steps :
* 1st step : XML validation and RFC compliance is checked through automated tools. A 100% compliance signal must be received to be able to proceed to second step.
* 2nd step : delivery to the pre-production environment. The development is delivered on the preproduction environment. This environment is available for internal testing team. They proceed through a standard Operational Test which goes through a full lifecycle of a domain name. Specific tests are made on new functions in any.
* 3rd step : delivery to the sandbox environment. This sandbox environment is opened for registrar where they have two accounts to validate their clients before production activation.
* 4th step : the new release is delivered in production.

------------------------
3.2 - XML validation

EPP RFC compliance is reached through three mechanisms :
* a batch of unitary tests on each operation, each answer of the server being validated through the XSD schema.
* XML validation through perl XML::LibXML::Schema library
* fuzzy testing, by sending garbage input and checking error return codes.

------------------------
3.3 - Cross checking

EPP cross checking partnership is established with .at Registry operator to validate in sandbox environment prior to delivery in production through mutual agreement.

------------------------
4 - Specific extensions

------------------------
4.1 - Specific extension : DNSSEC

The EPP server provides the secDNS-1-1 extension as described in RFC 5910. Implementation specifications are as follows :
* The server only supports “the DS data interface” (ʹsecDNS:dsDataʹ); section 4.1 of RFC 5910, without information on the associated key (the ʹsecDNS:keyDataʹ element is not included); if information on the key is indicated the server will answer with a 2102 error code.
* DNSSEC elements are only accepted during an update operation request. If included during a create operation the server will answer with a 2103 error code.
* Each domain name can have up to 6 associated DS records : the number of elements ʹsecDNS:dsDataʹ present in the ʹsecDNS:addʹ section during an update operation is therefore limited in order to have the domain name’s final status with no more than 6 DS records.
* The maxSigLife attribute is not supported, its presence inside a client request will generate a 2102 error code.
* The urgent attribute is not supported, its presence inside a client request will generate a 2102 error code.

[see attached diagram Q25_4.1_EPP_xsd_dnssec_extension_schema.pdf]
Diagram : EPP xsd dnssec extension schema
Description : Registry service provider DNSsec EPP secDNS-1-1 extension is based on standard xsd schema as defined in RFC 5910.

------------------------
4.2 - Specific extension : IDN

No specific IDN extension has been used. The script used for the TLD is declared in the greetings and no further indication is needed in the following transaction. Usage is in full compliance with RFCs 5890, 5891, 5892, 5893, and 5894. This may be a pending situation : if a standard IDN extension was to be produced in the months to come it would be added to the EPP schema in order to deal more precisely with each specific language management policies.

------------------------
4.3 - Specific extension : Sunrise period

Sunrise period is managed through a specific EPP extension. The sunrise registration workflow is described in Question 29 (Right Protection Mechanism).

The extension used is described below but will follow work in progress at the IETF initiated by Cloud Registry (draft-tan-epp-launchphase-01.txt). The xsd schema has been designed by AFNIC’s partner CORE and is fully in accordance with the draft. It could be modified before the launch if the IETF draft was to be accepted as an RFC with modifications.

AFNIC Registry extension is fully compatible with extension mechanism described in RFC 5730. It offers trademark holders a specific mapping to provide information related to trademarks. It also enables query function to keep the sunrise process transparent to everybody.

For illustration and further information purposes, please refer to the Q25_4.3_EPP_xsd_sunrise_extension_schema.pdf file attached (EPP XSD sunrise extension schema) which describes the registry back-end services provider’s EPP extension XSD schema used to deal with sunrise period. This schema is designed based on the work in progress at IETF, as initiated by Cloud Registry (draft-tan-epp-launchphase-01.txt). This extension is fully compatible with extension mechanism described in RFC 5730.

------------------------
4.3.1 - New objects

application : to deal with multiple demands on same domain name. The server creates an application object corresponding to the request and assigns an identifier for the application and returns it to the client. This mapping defines an ʹlp:applicationIDʹ element which is used to specify an ID to this object.

phase : optionnal element ʹlp:phaseʹ to be used in case of multiple sunrise phases.

status : status of each application in link with internal state of the process of the application. The ʹlp:statusʹ values that can be used in order to process the applications are pending, invalid, validated, allocated, rejected. These statuses have to be mapped with the sunrise workflow described in Question 29 (Right Protection Mechanism).

claim : claim object contains the details needed to applicantʹs prior right to the domain name.
The ʹlp:claimʹ element has the boolean ʺpreValidatedʺ attribute, which indicates whether a third party validation agency has already validated the claim in case of inter connection with the IP clearing house.

Several child elements of the ʹlp:claimʹ element are defined :
ʹlp:pvrcʹ, the Pre-Validation Result Code, is a string issued by a third-party validation agent. ʹlp:claimIssuerʹ contains the ID of a contact object (as described in RFC 5733) identifying the contact information of the authority which issued the right (for example, a trade mark office or company registration bureau).
ʹlp:claimNameʹ identifies the text string in which the applicant is claiming a prior right. ʹlp:claimNumberʹ contains the registration number of the right (i.e. trademark number or company registration number).
ʹlp:claimTypeʹ indicates the type of claim being made (e.g. trademark, symbol, combined mark,
company name).
ʹlp:claimEntitlementʹ indicates the applicantʹs entitlement to the claim (i.e. owner or licensee). ʹlp:claimRegDateʹ contains the date of registration of the claim.
ʹlp:claimExDateʹ contains the date of expiration of the claim.
ʹlp:claimCountryʹ indicates the country in which the claim is valid.
ʹlp:claimRegionʹ indicates the name of a city, state, province or other geographic region in which the claim is valid. This may be a two-character code from WIPO standard ST.3.

------------------------
4.3.2 - command extensions

------------------------
4.3.2.1 - EPP Query Commands

ʹinfoʹ command is the only extended query command.

In order to indicate that the query is meant for an application object, an ʹlp:infoʹ element is sent along with the regular ʹinfoʹ domain command.

The ʹlp:infoʹ element contains the following child elements :
ʹlp:applicationIDʹ, the application identifier for which the client wishes to query, and ʹlp:phaseʹ (optional), the phase the application is associated with.
If the query was successful, the server replies with an ʹlp:infDataʹ element along with the regular EPP ʹresDataʹ. The ʹlp:infData contains the following child elements:
* ʹlp:applicationIDʹ the application identifier of the returned application.
* ʹlp:phaseʹ (optional) the phase during which the application was submitted or is associated with.
* ʹlp:statusʹ (optional) status of the application.
* ʹlp:claimʹ (optional) one or more ʹlp:claimʹ elements.
If present, the ʹlp:claimʹ elements may contain the child elements as described above in the claim object description.

------------------------
4.3.2.2 - EPP Transform Commands

There are three extended EPP transform commands : ʹcreateʹ, ʹdeleteʹ and ʹrenewʹ

------------------------
4.3.2.2.1 - EPP ʹcreateʹ Command

The EPP ʹcreateʹ command is used to create an application. Additional information is required to submit a domain name application during a launch phase :
* ʹlp:phaseʹ (optional), the phase the application should be associated with
* ʹlp:claimʹ (optional) elements to substantiate the prior rights of the applicant.

When such a ʹcreateʹ command has been processed successfully, the EPP ʹextensionʹ element in the response contains a child ʹlp:creDataʹ element that identifies the registry launchphase namespace and the location of the registry launchphase schema. The ʹlp:creDataʹ element contains a child ʹlp:applicationIDʹ element, which informs the registrar about the application ID the server has assigned.

------------------------
4.3.2.2.2 - EPP ʹupdateʹ Command

This extension defines additional elements to extend the EPP ʹupdateʹ command to be used in conjunction with the domain name mapping.
Registry policies permitting, clients may update an application object by submitting an EPP ʹupdateʹ command along with an ʹlp:updateʹ element to indicate the application object to be updated.
The ʹlp:updateʹ element contains the following child elements:
* ʹlp:applicationIDʹ the application identifier for which the client wishes to update.
* ʹlp:phaseʹ (optional) the phase during which the application was submitted or is associated with.

------------------------
4.3.2.2.3 - EPP ʹdeleteʹ Command

Registry policies permitting, clients may withdraw an application by submitting an EPP ʹdeleteʹ command along with an ʹlp:deleteʹ element to indicate the application object to be deleted. The ʹlp:deleteʹ element contains the following child elements:
* ʹlp:applicationIDʹ the application identifier for which the client wishes to delete.
* ʹlp:phaseʹ (optional) the phase during which the application was submitted or is associated with.


------------------------
5 - Resources

Four categories of profiles are needed to run the Registry’s Technical Operations : Registry Operations Specialists (I), Registry Systems Administrators (II), Registry Software Developer (III) and Registry Expert Engineers (IV). These categories, skill set and global availability of resources have been detailed in Question 31 (Technical Overview of Proposed Registry) including specific resources set and organisation to provide 24⁄7 coverage and maintenance capacity.
Specific workload for EPP management is detailed below.

------------------------
5.1 - Initial implementation

The set up is operated on the pre-installed virtualization infrastructure. It implies actions by system, database and network administrators to create the virtual servers and install the applicative packages.

Then, developers, assisted by a senior staff member expert in internet technologies and RFCs apply proper configuration for the given TLD. Compliance is strictly tested.

The initial implementation effort is estimated as follows :

Database Administrator 0.03 man.day
Network Administrator 0.03 man.day
System Administrator 0.03 man.day
Software Developer 0.10 man.day
Software Engineer 0.20 man.day

------------------------
5.2 - On-going maintenance

On-going maintenance on the SRS includes integration of new policy rules, evolution of technology, bug fixing, infrastructure evolution, failover testing.

Although all the defined technical profiles are needed for such on-going maintenance operations, on a regular basis, it is mainly a workload handled by monitoring and development teams for alert management, new functional developments and RFC compliance checks, respectively.

The on-going maintenance effort per year is estimated as follows, on a yearly basis :

Operations Specialist 0.20 man.day
System Administrator 0.10 man.day
Software Developer 0.15 man.day
Software Engineer 0.10 man.day


26. Whois

Table of Contents

1 - General description
2 - Data access
2.1 Typology of accessible data
2.2 Profiles for data access control
3 - RDDS architecture
4 - RDDS infrastructure
5 - Rate limitation
6 - Reverse lookups
7 - Interconnectivity and synchronization with other systems
8 - Performance and scalability
9 - ICANN Bulk access compliance
10 - RFC compliance
11 - Resources
11.1 - Initial implementation
11.2 - On-going maintenance


------------------------
1 - General description

Registration Data Directory Service (RDDS) is one of the five vital functions of the Registry.
It is in direct connection with the database of the Shared Registration System and offers access to the public administrative and technical data of the registry.
The registry back-end solution implements data access through various interfaces that will be described below as well as their data access policies.

The main focus will be made on Whois on port 43 following RFC 3912 which is the main point of access.
The web Whois offers similar functionalities, is based on the same architecture and will be presented through screenshots.

The following description will provide full and detailed description of the architecture of the RDDS both from an application and from an infrastructure point of view.
This architecture is the same as the one used in production by AFNIC for .FR zone and has been fully functional for the last 15 years, with the ability to meet stringent SLAs as well as to scale from the management of a few thousands domain names in operations to over 2 million in late 2011.


------------------------
2 - Data access

When considering the data access services, we must address :
* the typology of accessible data
* access control : who can access what kind of data
* performance : guarantee of availability and performance for requesting data

Potential limitations to the systems will also be described.
To be able to maintain a good access to everybody (registrar, registrants, outside world), our back-end solution provides multiple access with consistent role and access policies.

------------------------
2.1 Typology of accessible data

Data that can be accessed through the RDDS are mainly :
* contact data : registrant, administrative, technical, billing
* domain data : domain name, status
* host data : name servers, IP addresses
* ephemeris : creation, expiration dates
* registrar data

These data are all described in the RFCs and fully compliant to the mapping of RFCs 5730 to 5734.

------------------------
2.2 Profiles for data access control

= Whois for registrars =

The main registrar access tool is our RDDS service accessible both on port 43 following specifications of RFC 3912 and through web access.
Both web and port 43 RDDS offer natively compliance with privacy law with a “restricted disclosure” flag if needed by the TLD. This option is activated through Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) standard ʹdiscloseʹ parameters while creating or updating a contact and automatically understood by the whois server to anonymize the data.
This service is accessible both in IPv4 and IPv6.
RDDS access for registrar is rate limited to ensure performance. (see performance)

= Public whois =

RDDS access is also available on port 43 to everybody through a rate limited access to ensure performance. (see performance)

= Legal requirements =

AFNIC back end solution implements by default French privacy laws with opt-out registrant personal data privacy.
This option can be deactivated if necessary to be compliant with the policy of the TLD.


------------------------
3 - RDDS architecture

= RDDS architecture =

RDDS is running on two load balanced front virtual servers directly connected to two databases : the production database for data access, and a rate-limiting service database which applies rate-limiting policies and store IP involved. This server implements token bucket algorithm to flatten traffic on the server.

The two front servers are load balanced using classical round robin implementation.

The network infrastructure is the same as described in the global architecture (referred to below) and no specific dedicated switch or router is to be considered as the rate limiting tool is an applicative one. A global description of the network infrastructure (switch and routers involved) can be found in answers to Question 32 (Architecture).

[see attached diagram Q26_3_RDDS_architecture_diagram.pdf]
Diagram : RDDS architecture diagram
Description : This diagram shows global interaction between Internet, DMZ and private network zones. Topology of network and servers is illustrated including dedicated IP address scheme and network flows.

= RDDS logical diagram =

Our robust infrastructure shows dual Internet Service Provider (ISP) connectivity both in Ipv4 and Ipv6 (Jaguar and RENATER), redundant firewall and switching infrastructure. This part of the architecture is mutualized for all TLDs hosted.

The networking architecture dedicates LAN for administration, backup and production.

Servers are hosted on different network zones : database for database, private for servers not visible on the internet and public for external servers visible on the DMZ. Dedicated zones are also set up for monitoring servers, administration servers or desktop and backup servers.
RDDS servers are directly on the public zone.
Each server is load balanced and the service is not impacted by the loss of one server, the capacity of each server being sized to be able to host the whole traffic.

Servers hosting the .MMA TLD are shared with up to an estimated number of 20 TLDs of comparable scale and use case.

= RDDS physical diagram =

The IP scheme used is the following :

2001:67c:2218:1::4:0⁄64 for IPv6 Internet homing
192.134.4.0⁄24 for Ipv4 Internet homing

Production LAN

192.134.4.0⁄24 for public network IP range
10.1.50.0⁄24, 10.1.30.0⁄24 for private network IP ranges distributed on the zones described above.

Backup LAN

172.x.y.0⁄24 : x is a different on each network zone. y is fixed to the value of the associated production LAN in the same zone (for example Private zone production LAN being 10.1.”50”.0⁄24, Private zone backup LAN is 172.16.”50”.0⁄24)

Administration LAN

172.z.y.0⁄24 : z is the value of x+1, x being the digit chosen for the corresponding Backup LAN in the same zone. y is fixed to the value of the associated production LAN in the same zone (for example Private zone production LAN being 10.1.”50”.0⁄24, Private zone administration LAN is 172.17.”50”.0⁄24)

Hot standby of the production database is automatically taken into account by the RDDS Oracle Transparent Network Substrate configuration. Therefore if the database are migrated in hot standby due to failure of part of the system, the Registration Data Directory Services (RDDS) access is automatically swapped to the new base.


------------------------
4 - RDDS infrastructure

In the following description “server” will refer to either a physical or a virtual server.
Due to very fast growth of performance in storage and processors technologies, the infrastructure described below could be replaced by more powerful one available at the time of the set up for the same cost.

At the applicative and system level, AFNIC’s SRS systems are shared with up to an estimated number of 20 TLDs of comparable scale and use case.

AFNIC has invested in very efficient VMWare Vsphere virtualization infrastructure. It provides a flexible approach to recovery both through quick activation of a new fresh server in case of local failure (cold standby) and through global failover to a mirrored infrastructure on another site.
This comes in addition to natural redundancy provided by the load balanced servers.

The RDDS is therefore hosted on virtualized infrastructure on the public zone (Demilitarized Zone - MZ) to the exception of the database, which presents very high rate of I⁄O (Input⁄Output), and is hosted on a dedicated physical infrastructure on the private zone.

The rate limiting database is hosted on one physical dedicated physical server. This server represents no failure point as a failure of the rate limiting system doesn’t affect the service (a standard uniform limitation is then applied instead of intelligent rate limiting).
The main database is the production database also used by the SRS and other registry vital functions and is described more in detail in Question 33 (Database Capabilities).

Databases are based on Oracle technologies. The main database is replicated logically on two sites. Full local recovery processes are in place in case of loss of integrity through the Oracle redolog functions which provides full recovery by replay of historized logged requests.

The whole RDDS service is located in the primary Tier 3 datacenter used by AFNIC in production, the
secondary datacenter serves as failover capacity. Continuity mechanisms at a datacenter level are described in Questions 34 (Geographic Diversity), 39 (Registry Continuity) and 41 (Failover testing).

The detailed list of infrastructures involved can be described as follows :

This infrastructure is designed to host up to an estimated number of 20 TLDs of comparable scale and use case.

= Virtual servers =

RDDS server : 2 servers
* Processor: 1 bi-core CPU
* Main memory: 16 GB of RAM
* Operating system: RedHat RHEL 6
* Disk space: 500 GB

= Data storage : see Question 33 (Database Capabilities) =

= Physical server =

Rate limiting database : 1 server
* Processor: 1 bi-core CPU
* Main memory: 8 GB of RAM
* Operating system: RedHat RHEL 6
* Disk space: 500 GB

Back up servers, backup libraries, Web whois server : mutualized with the global registry service provider infrastructure

= Additionnal infrastructure =

Failover, sandbox, preproduction infrastructure : 3 server
* 1 bi-core CPU, 16 GB of RAM, RedHat RHEL 6, 500 GB

------------------------
5 - Rate limitation

To ensure resiliency of the RDDS a rate limitation mechanism is in place.
RDDS is largely used by various public users and registrars, some of them for domain name drop catching. Potentiality of heavy load on this service is very high.
Therefore a rate limitation is applied with threshold calculated from the level of activity expected in order not to penalize normal use of the service. A double level mechanism enables different threshold for identified IP (white list) from registrar and for the public access.

Rate limitation is directly implemented on the front end server.

Access is rate limited through token-bucket algorithms with rate-limiting IP data stored on a dedicated database.
Penalties are applied as follow :
* any IP : 7,200 request ⁄ 24 hour ⁄ IP.
* white listed IP for registrars : 86,400 requests⁄ 24 hour ⁄IP.


------------------------
6 - Reverse lookups

The web RDDS access offers advanced searchability capacities.
The following functions are available :

= Direct queries =

* Partial match query on domain name, administrative, technical, and billing contact name and address, registrant name and address, registrar name including all the sub-fields described in EPP (e.g., street, city, state or province, etc.).
* Exact match query on registrar id, name server name, and name server’s IP glue records
The result of direct queries is the object queried (contact, domain, ...)

= Reverse queries =

* Partial match query on domain name, administrative, technical, and billing contact name and address, registrant name and address, registrar name including all the sub-fields described in EPP (e.g., street, city, state or province, etc.).
* Exact match query on registrar id, name server name, and name server’s IP glue records including IPv6 queries.
The result of reverse queries is the list of objects of a given type linked with the result object (list of domains with a given contact result, or name server result,...)

This powerful tool is limited in access :
* Captcha system avoids scripting of the interface.
* Direct queries are open to every user but the number of result objects is limited to 1,000 answers for 1 query.
* Reverse queries can only be done by registrars on the extranet interface, and the number of result objects is limited to 10,000 answers for 1 query. The interface cannot be used more than 100 times a day.


------------------------
7 - Interconnectivity and synchronization with other systems

= SRS =

Data updated by the SRS are immediately visible in the RDDS with no further synchronisation needed. Rate limitation is applied both on SRS and RDDS service to avoid any load on the database. SRS and RDDS are partly in the same network zone, both RDDS servers and EPP SSL reverse proxies being in the public network zone (DMZ).

= Main database =

Hot standby of the production database is automatically taken into account by the RDDS Oracle Transparent Network Substrate configuration. Therefore if database are migrated in hot standby due to failure of part of the system, the RDDS service is automatically swapped to the new architecture.

= Rate limiting database =

No standby is implemented on the rate-limiting database. In case of failure, a standard global limitation is applied while, replacement of the database is operated.

= Monitoring =

Monitoring is operated through probes and agents scanning systems with a 5 minutes period. The monitoring system gets snmp data from all servers described in the RDDS architecture and also from dedicated Oracle monitoring agent for the database.
Hot standby is not implemented on monitoring agents.


------------------------
8 - Performance and scalability

The Registry’s RDDS offers high level production SLAs and derives from the branch of systems that have evolved over the last 12 years to successfully operate a set of french ccTLDs.

The Registry’s RDDS is used to publish .fr, .re, .yt, .pm, .tf, .wf TLDs information. It is used by more than 800 registrars in parallel managing more than 2 millions domain names and by a large user community.

AFNIC’s RDDS is designed to meet ICANN’s Service-level requirements as specified in Specification 10 (SLA Matrix) attached to the Registry Agreement.

As described in Question 31 (Technical Overview) in relation to each of the phases of the TLD’s operations, the following transaction loads are expected on the WHOIS servers : 9 queries⁄second on average for both launch phase and on going operations.

AFNIC’s WHOIS systems can serve up to 10,000 requests⁄min on load balanced service to be compatible with the launch and growth scenario described in Question 31 (Technical Overview).

The targeted TLD objective being around 700 domain names with a provision for 9 queries⁄second on average, this ensures that enough capacity is available to handle the launching period, as well as demand peaks and unexpected overhead.

Capacity planning indicators are set up to anticipate exceptional growth of the TLD.
Technologies used enables quick upgrade on all fields :
* Servers : virtual resizing to add CPUs or disk space if resource is available on the production ESX servers. If not, 2 spare additional ESX servers can be brought live if additional performance is needed.
* Servers (alternate) : additional servers can be added and taken into account immediately through dns round robin algorithm.
* Database : database capacity has been greatly oversized to avoid need of replacement of this physical powerful server. Precise capacity planning will ensure that sufficient delay will be available to acquire new server if needed. A threshold of 40% of CPU use or total storage capacity triggers alert for acquisition.


------------------------
9 - ICANN Bulk access compliance

The Registry Operator will provide both data escrow and ICANN bulk access in a same process.
Data escrow generates data on a daily basis. One file per week is kept for ICANN access to bulk data.


------------------------
10 - RFC compliance

The system has been launched compliant with RFCs. Mechanisms are in place to ensure that on going maintenance and new functional delivery stay compliant with RFCs.

= Delivery process =

The RDDS evolutions are developed on the development environment.
The development process implies strict coding rules and use of shared best practices. Pair programming is standard practice. Unit test are developed prior to function development to ensure resiliency of the produced code.

Delivery process take place in four steps :
* 1st step : RDDS validation and RFC compliance is checked through automated tools. A 100% compliance signal must be received to be able to proceed to second step.
* 2nd step : delivery to the pre-production environment. The development is delivered on the preproduction environment. This environment is available for internal testing team.
* 3rd step : delivery to the sandbox environment. This sandbox environment is opened for registrar where they have two accounts to validate their clients before production activation.
* 4th step : the new release is delivered in production.

= Format validation =

RDDS rfc compliance is reached through a specific RDDS checker which is use for non-regression test before each new release.

= Cross checking =

Whois cross checking partnership is established with .at Registry operator to validate in sandbox environment prior to delivery in production through mutual agreement.

= Whois Output =

* Output of a whois query is 100% similar to the whois query example available in RFC 3912.

------------------------
11 - Resources

Four categories of profiles are needed to run the Registry’s Technical Operations : Registry Operations Specialists (I), Registry Systems Administrators (II), Registry Software Developer (III) and Registry Expert Engineers (IV). These categories, skillset and global availability of resources have been detailed in Question 31 (Technical Overview of Proposed Registry) including specific resources set and organisation to provide 24⁄7 coverage and maintenance capacity.
Specific workload for RDDS management is detailed below.

------------------------
11.1 - Initial implementation

The initial implementation effort is estimated as follows :

Database Administrator 0.03 man.day
Network Administrator 0.03 man.day
System Administrator 0.03 man.day
Software Developer 0.10 man.day
Software Engineer 0.05 man.day

------------------------
11.2 - On-going maintenance

On-going maintenance on the RDDS module includes mainly integration of new policy rules, privacy law evolutions, evolution of contracts, infrastructure evolution, failover testing.

Although all the defined technical profiles are needed for such on-going maintenance operations, on a regular basis, it is mainly a workload handled by monitoring and development teams for alert management and new functional developments, respectively.

The on-going maintenance effort per year is estimated as follows, on a yearly basis :

Operations Specialist 0.15 man.day
System Administrator 0.05 man.day
Software Developer 0.05 man.day
Software Engineer 0.10 man.day

27. Registration Life Cycle

Table of Contents

1 - Global description
2 - Data associated with a domain name
2.1 - Technical data
2.2 - Administrative data
3 - Full domain name lifecycle overview
4 - Basic create⁄update⁄delete life cycle
4.1 - create
4.2 - update
4.2.1 - technical update
4.2.2 - administrative update
4.2.3 - context update
4.3 - delete⁄restore
5 - Transfer
6 - Renewal and auto-renewal
7 - Grace period and refund
8 - Resources allocated
8.1 - Initial implementation
8.2 - On-going maintenance


------------------------
1 - Global description

Domain names represents the core technical part of the Domain Name System. The lifecycle of a domain name can have both technical impacts, when it relates to technical data associated with the domain name, and administrative impact when related to the registrant of the domain name.

The following diagrams and descriptions will bring detailed answers to the question of the lifecycle of the domain name in regards to both these aspects

------------------------
2 - Data associated with a domain name

To clearly understand the lifecycle of the domain name, we must first give an exhaustive description of the data involved in the various operations to be made.

------------------------
2.1 - Technical data

A domain name is a technical label used for Domain name resolution. To be effective, it is associated with nameservers -server hosting the configuration of the domain name -, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses - to identify on the network servers independently of the DNS, DNSsec signature information - delegation signer and cryptographic algorithm used-.
Less directly related to the technical basic configuration are :
* = clientHold = label : relates to the DNS or not DNS-publication status of the domain name.
* = auth_info = : a protection code linked with the domain and used by the owner to unlock some operations
* = client*Prohibited = : a list of status activated by the registrar to lock the domain name and prevent some operations
* = server*Prohibited = : a list of status activated by the registry service provider to lock the domain name and prevent some operations

------------------------
2.2 - Administrative data

A domain name has to be managed by his owner. Therefore it comes associated with a list of operational and administrative contacts that can be used to get in relation with the domain name owner or technical staff. The most important are administrative contact, technical contact, billing contact, and of course registrant contact. The last contact object is the registrar object which shows which registrar is in charge of domain name operations at the registry level.

Both these administrative and technical data are modified and used in the lifecycle and we will now describe this in detail.


------------------------
3 - Full domain name lifecycle overview

We have chosen to illustrate the registration lifecycle through a state diagram
This state diagram is joined as a separate file.

[see attached diagram Q27_3_global_lifecycle.pdf]
Diagram : Global Lifecycle
Description : Considering the wide range of the states and transition, the choice has been made to present a linear scenario going through all available operations. In this scenario, impact on registrar objects, registrant objects, domain objects, host objects are described at each step. Also statuses and forbidden operations at each step are indicated.
The following domain states have been introduced to describe the lifecycle major steps :
* registered : the domain name is registered, published in the Registration Data Directory Services (RDDS) but not in the DNS (clientHold label is set or there is no host information)
* active : the domain name is registered, published in the RDDS and in the DNS
* redemption : the domain name is registered, published in the RDDS but not in the DNS. It will be - deleted if no action is taken by the registrar.
* locked : specific operations as transfer or delete have been forbidden by the registrar.
Impact on expiry dates has also been indicated though adequate formulas.

All aspects of the registration lifecycle are covered by standard Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) RFCs and the EPP implementation is described in Question 25 (EPP).


------------------------
4 - Basic create⁄update⁄delete life cycle

The basic life cycle is described below without explanation of add grace period. The behavior of add grace period is described in chapter 7.

------------------------
4.1 - create

A domain name is created through a standard EPP domain:create command.
Administrative data linked with the creation are registrant contact, admin contact and technical contact, period before renewal.
Technical data linked with the creation are nameservers host objects, IP address for glue records, auth_info code.
The state of the domain name is REGISTERED if no host objects have been filled.
The state of the domain name is ACTIVE if host objects have been filled.
The state of the domain name can exceptionally be PENDING during the operation if a technical issue makes it asynchronous.
Otherwise this operation is real time and there is no delay elements to be considered.

Elements needed to create a domain are contacts (mandatory), host objects (optional) and auth_code (mandatory).
It can then be managed through domain:update commands.

------------------------
4.2 - update

domain:update commands enables a wide range of fields updates

------------------------
4.2.1 - technical update

Part of the fields of the update enables to update technical configuration. It enables nameserver, IP address, and dnssec options management. It is also used to remove a technical configuration..

The state of the domain name is REGISTERED if no host objects have been filled or have been removed.
The state of the domain name is ACTIVE if host objects have been filled.
The state of the domain name can exceptionally be PENDING during the operation if a technical issue makes it asynchronous.

------------------------
4.2.2 - administrative update

It is used to freely modify the various contacts linked with the domain name : administrative, technical, billing, and registrant contact.
The state of the domain name is not modified if only these fields are used.
The state of the domain name can exceptionally be PENDING during the operation if a technical issue makes it asynchronous.

------------------------
4.2.3 - context update

It is used by the client to modify status of the domain name and⁄or to modify the auth-info code linked with the domain name.
The status that can be changed are the following : clientHold, clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.
The clientHold flag enables to remove the domain name from publication temporarily without deleting its technical configuration.
The other client*Prohibited statuses prevent the corresponding operation to be used.
The state of the domain name is REGISTERED if status is updated to clientHOLD.
The state of the domain name is LOCKED if status is updated to clientTransferProhibited.
The state of the domain name can exceptionally be PENDING during the operation if a technical issue makes it asynchronous.

------------------------
4.3 - delete⁄restore

Deletion can be used only by the registrar in charge of the domain name. It brings the domain name in Redemption grace period for a period of 30 days. It can be restored at any time during this period without any changes to the data. Deletion remove the domain name from the DNS publication service.
The state of the domain name is DELETED during redemption period.
The redemption period lasts 30 days. The domain is destroyed at the end of this period and a notification is sent.


------------------------
5 - Transfer

The transfer is described below without explanation of transfer grace period. The behavior of transfer grace period is described in chapter 7.

A transfer can be initiated only by an incoming registrar and using the auth_info that the owner has given him. This standard mechanism acts as a security and associates the triggering of transfer to the acceptance of the owner of the domain.
The transfer operation can be triggered only if the domain is not protected by a clientTransferProhibited lock.

[see attached diagram Q27_5_transfer_lifecycle.pdf]
Diagram : Transfer lifecycle
Description : Transfer operation includes various steps with impact on both outgoing and incoming registrars.

The outgoing registrar receive a transfer notification and can technically accept or reject the registrar change. Rejection can only be done in specific cases described in ICANN consensus policies.
If the outgoing registrar accepts the transfer, the operation is accepted immediately.
If the outgoing registrar does not validate the transfer, the operation is automatically accepted after 5 days.
If the outgoing registrar rejects the transfer, the operation is automatically cancelled and both registrars are notified of the rejection.
When the transfer succeeds, both registrars are notified through their EPP notification queue.

A reverse transfer can be asked by the losing registrar. The documents and cases where this cancellation of the transfer can be asked follow ICANN consensus policies on transfers. In case of disputes, the ICANN TDRP (Registrar Transfer Dispute Resolution Policy) is followed.

The state of the domain name is PENDING during the operation.


------------------------
6 - Renewal and auto-renewal

Domain:renew command is used by the registrar to increase the period of registration. If a domain name is registered for less than 10 years it can be renewed for a period up to 10 years at any time. The expiry date is updated.
The domain:renew command can be sent at any phase of the lifecycle (exception of add grace period is described in next chapter).

The registry lifecycle works with auto-renewal mechanisms. If a registrar do not renew or delete the name when it reaches the expiration date, a one year auto-renew period is added. As for other commands, a grace period is linked with this action (see chapter 7)

[see attached diagram Q27_6_grace_period_renew_autorenew_lifecycle.pdf]
Diagram : Grace Period renew⁄autorenew lifecycle
Description : This renew⁄autorenew lifecycle sum up impact of operations on domain name availability and statuses.


------------------------
7 - Grace period and refund

= Grace period =

The Grace Period mechanism refers to a specified period following an operation or change of status in which the operation may be reversed and a credit may be issued to the Registrar.

= Redemption Grace Period =

The Redemption Grace Period has been described in the delete⁄restore chapter.
During this period, domain name is still registered and can be reactivated through domain:restore command. No specific refund is linked with this period.

= Create - Add Grace Period (AGP) =

The implemented AGP is a five-day period following the domain:create command of a domain name.
The Registrar may delete the domain name at any time during this period and receive a full credit for the registration fee from the Operator. Once a domain name is deleted by the registry at this stage, it is immediately available for registration by any registrant through any Registrar.

= Auto-renew Grace Period =

The auto-renew add grace period is implemented. If during this 45 days period the domain is deleted by the incoming registrar, the ʹdomain:renewʹ command is refunded.

= Renew Grace Period =

The renew grace period is implemented. If during the 5 days period following explicit renew bye the registrar, the domain name is deleted, the renew is then refunded.

= Transfer Grace Period =

The transfer grace period is implemented. If during the 5 days period following a transfer the domain is deleted, the transfer is then refunded.

= AGP Limits Policy =

If too many deletions take place during the AGP from a given registrars, a financial penalty is applied.
The Add Grace Period Limits Policy allows a registrarʹs account to be debited each month for all AGP deletions that exceed the greater of either:
* 50 domain names, or
* 10% of net new adds for the previous month


------------------------
8 - Resources allocated

Four categories of profiles are needed to run the Registry’s Technical Operations : Registry Operations Specialists (I), Registry Systems Administrators (II), Registry Software Developer (III) and Registry Expert Engineers (IV). These categories, skillset and global availability of resources have been detailed in Question 31 (Technical Overview of Proposed Registry). Specific workload for this question is detailed below.

------------------------
8.1 - Initial implementation

The set up of a precise lifecycle implies actions by developers, assisted by a senior staff member expert in internet technologies and RFCs to apply proper configuration for the given TLD. Compliance is strictly tested.

The initial implementation effort is estimated as follows :

Software Developer 0.20 man.day
Software Engineer 0.20 man.day

------------------------
8.2 - On-going maintenance

On-going maintenance on the lifecycle includes mainly integration of new policy rules.
The on-going maintenance effort per year is estimated as follows, on a yearly basis :

Software Developer 0.20 man.day
Software Engineer 0.20 man.day

28. Abuse Prevention and Mitigation

Table of Content


1 - Introduction
2 - Definition of malicious or abusive behavior
3 - Abuse point of contact (POC)
4 - Policies for handling complaints regarding abuse
5 - Orphan glue records
6 - WHOIS accuracy
6.1 - Syntactic and semantic registration constraints
6.2 - Verification tools
6.3 - Whois Data Reminder Policy (WDRP)
6.4 - Protection against unfair use of Whois service
6.5 - Protection against Data Mining
6.6 - Prevention of Unauthorized data modification (Domain functions and control of the domain ⁄ control of use)
6.7 - Prevention from other abusive conducts
7 - Abuse prevention and mitigation policies and procedures
7.1 - No automatic domain registrations: The Delegation Commission’s filter
7.2 - Random Checks in respect of the use of the domain names
7.3 - Sensitization to Pharming and Phishing
7.4 - Registry Commitments
8 - Resourcing

------------------------
1 - Introduction

The nature of the application (i.e. a Brand Community application with a strict upstream control by a Commission (the ʺDelegation Commissionʺ) designated by the Registry of delivered domain names and a Single Registrant with a full control on domain names) will constitute in itself a safeguard against potential abuses.

In order to minimize abusive registrations and other activities that have a negative impact on Internet users such as phishing or cybersquatting, a control will be carried out by the Delegation Commission on domain names and their intended content. The Single Registrant solemnly undertakes, as much as it is able to, to avoid such issues, which would not serve the Community’s best interest.


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2 - Definition of malicious or abusive behavior

The prevention and mitigation policy will cover all types of abuse relevant to the applied for .MMA. The term ʺabuseʺ is considered widely and includes but is not limited to:
* Infringements to third parties rights (among which trademark abuse),
* Web content undermining morality and public order,
* Phishing, cybersquatting or other patterns deemed to have a negative impact on users, and
* Spam practices from an internet email address ending with .MMA.


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3 - Abuse point of contact (POC)

The Registry undertakes to designate and make publicly known on its website a technically competent point of contact (the ʺPOCʺ) to deal with abusive⁄ malicious conduct issues. POC will be responsible for addressing matters requiring expedited attention and providing a timely response to abuse complaints concerning all names registered in the TLD. The POC will also be in charge of taking reasonable steps to investigate and respond to any reports from law enforcement, governmental and quasi-governmental agencies on illegal conducts in connection with the use of the TLD.

POCʹs information will be published and prominently displayed on the Registryʹs webpage.
It will provide the Community with all required details on how to contact the POC, including telephone and email address. To further increase POCʹs visibility, the same information will also be prominently displayed on the Registrar (s) website.

The POC is an individual who can -within 24 hours delay- take action to remedy the situation in the case of a well founded report of illegal, criminal or malicious activity, including allegations of fraud and domain name abuse, involving a domain name registration under .MMA.


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4 - Policies for handling complaints regarding abuse

The policies presented herein are intended for the handling of complaints made against the Single Registrant and .MMA registrar(s).

= Policies =

The scope of the Registryʹs jurisdiction is strictly limited to matters relating to the .MMA domain namesʹ complaints, including but not limited to:

* the content of websites corresponding to .MMA domains (such content is subject to MMAʹs conditions on websites content as provided for in the response to question 20 (e)), including objectionable or offensive website content, and
* illegal or malicious use of a .MMA domain name, such as spam or phishing.

The Registry reserves the right not to acknowledge or investigate a complaint that is clearly frivolous, vexatious or abusive, or in MMAʹs opinion has been brought in bad faith.

= Complaints Management process =

* Complaints may be submitted to the Registry via the designated POC.
* Complaints are investigated based on the facts provided.
* Two situations may be distinguished:
* Complaints are taken into account within twenty four (24) hours. They will be handled by the POC directly if the case is obvious.
* If the case is more complex and if a decision cannot be made by the POC alone, the POC will acknowledge receipt within twenty four (24) hours and indicate the timeframe by which a response can be provided. The complaint is then forwarded to a two members Abuse Commission designated by the Registry (This Commission is different from the Delegation Commission which decides on the delegation of a domain name).
* The Abuse Commission endeavors to resolve the complaint as quickly as possible. In the event the complaint lodged with the POC is complex, the Abuse Commission will regularly keep the complainant informed of the progress of the complaint.
* The Abuse Commission, may seek further information from any party to assist with its investigation, and may place a registry server lock on the domain name(s) in question, in order to preserve the status quo whilst the investigation is pending.
* Depending on the POC ⁄ Abuse Commission’s decision, different kind of measures may be taken: suspension or deletion of the domain name for instance. Since there will be only one single applicant, as a general rule, it will not be possible to transfer ownership of the domain to any third party.

Under certain circumstances and to the extent permitted under applicable law, the domain user or the web manager’s details as well as the project’s file may be disclosed (for instance, further to a Court’s order).


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5 - Orphan glue records

According to the definition found in the ʺSSAC Comment on the Orphan Glue Records in the Draft Applicant Guidebook”, a glue record becomes an ʺorphanʺ when the delegation point NS record (the ʺparent NS recordʺ) that references is removed while retaining the glue record itself in the zone. Consequently, the glue record becomes ʺorphanedʺ since it no longer has a parent NS record. In such a situation, registrars and registrants usually lose administrative control over the record, and the recordʹs attribution to a certain registrar may become unclear, which makes it a potential vector for abuse.

The glue record policy in effect for the .MMA TLD avoids this situation entirely by disallowing orphan glue records altogether. This corresponds to policy #3 mentioned in section 4.3 (page 6) of the SSAC document mentioned above. The technical implementation within the Registry and its associated zone generation process ensures this by the following measures:

* Any host object which is a glue record can be created only if the domain name exist and is sponsored by the registrar creating the host.
* Any deletion of a domain name which has subordinate hosts can be done only when these hosts are deleted. If these hosts are used in delegations for other .extension domain names, these delegations have to be removed to delete the host objects and then the domain name.

If the sponsored registrar of the domain name cannot remove these delegations (explicit refusal or inactivity from subordinate hosts registrar’s), it is possible to use a specific procedure by asking directly the Registry. Then, the Registry contact the domain name(s)’ registrar who used in delegation the host object(s) and asks him to remove the delegations. Registrars have 10 days to remove these delegations. If there is no removal of delegation within this deadline, the Registry deactivates directly the DNS configuration of the domain name(s) concerned. At the end of the procedure, the Registry informs the sponsored registrar that he can delete the host object(s) and the domain name.

This procedure is directly inspired from an existing AFNIC procedure. It will prohibit the creation of orphan glue records as from the opening of the .MMA

Insofar as the delegation and use of the .MMA domain names is strictly controlled and that domain names will be registered by very few registrars, MMA considers the risk of having orphan glue records in the .MMA zone as low.


WHOIS services – as mentioned in the “Draft Report for the Study of the Accuracy of WHOIS Registrant Contact Information” (whois-accuracy-study-17jan2010-en.pdf) are intended to provide free public access to information about the registrants of domain names.

In the case of the Community MMA TLD, Domain names will be delegated to one single registrant (the Single Registrant).

MMA, in its roles of Registry and Single Registrant, undertakes to keep these data updated. Regular verifications will be performed (at least on an annual basis), especially concerning organization name, contact person, postal address, telephone and email address.

In regard to our Single Registrant structure, this provision will only be relevant to this single entity. Required accuracy will be mainly in relation to the correct name and a valid postal mailing address for the current registered name holder. We thus assume that no further measures to promote Whois accuracy are necessary. Nevertheless, the Registry is committed to ensure WHOIS verification upfront but also to provide searchable WHOIS functionality.


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6 - WHOIS accuracy

RFC3912 specifies the Whois protocol and explain it as follows:

Whois is a TCP-based transaction-oriented query⁄response protocol that is widely used to provide information services to Internet users. While originally used to provide ʺwhite pagesʺ services and information about registered domain names, current deployments cover a much broader range of information services. The protocol delivers its content in a human-readable format.

Information about registered domain names is very sensitive. A Registry Operator shall insure the accuracy of the registrant contact information, including administrative, technical and billing contact details. In case of malicious or abusive activity, the Whois contact is usually the first and most important source of information. Whois accuracy is therefore a major step to counter malicious conducts. These information may be required by law-enforcement authorities to identify individuals and organizations responsible for domain names.

The .MMA registry will make a firm commitment to obtaining true and accurate registration details from each registrant in order to maintain a consistent Whois accuracy throughout the registry.

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6.1 - Syntactic and semantic registration constraints:

The .MMA registry is firmly committed to run a “thick-registry” with high quality of data. The first step to accuracy is achieved through syntactic and semantic checks which are being carried out at the time of registration of the domain name.

Standard EPP checks: a first set of tests is implemented in compliance with standards:
* RFC 5733, the Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) Contact Mapping, requires contact data to contain a name, a city, a country code and an e-mail address in order to allow or perform a syntactically complete EPP request

Additional checks: the following syntactic checks are implemented:
* a test to ensure that the domain name has the proper number of labels (which is two for a traditional registry that allows only second level domains to be registered),
* a test to ensure that no hyphens occur in position 3 and 4 of any of the domainʹs U-labels (to protect ʺxn--ʺ and future ACE prefixes),
* a test to disallow hyphens at the beginning or end of the name,
* a test to find ASCII characters which are neither a letter, nor a digit or a hyphen,
* a test to find invalid IDN characters, i.e. characters not contained in any of the support IDN character tables
* a test to validate IP address format using the following scheme :
〈ipv4-addr〉 [1-255](\.[0-255]){3,3}
〈ipv6-addr〉 [a-fA-F0-9:]+(:〈ipv4-addr〉)?
* a test to validate telephone and mail format using the following scheme (with specific tests for fr numbers):
〈num tel〉 \+[1-9][0-9]{0,3}〈sp〉[1-9]([〈sp〉\.-]?[0-9])+
〈num tel fr〉 \+33〈sp〉[1-9]([〈sp〉\.-]?[0-9]){8}
〈e-mail〉 (([^\s\(\)\[\]\.\\〉〈,;:ʺ@]+(\.[^\s\(\)\[\]\.\\〉〈,;:ʺ@]+)*)|(ʺ[^ʺ@\\\r\n]+ʺ))@〈label〉(\.〈label〉)*

Additional checks: the following semantic checks are implemented:
* a test to disallow reserved names if authorisation code is not present
* a test to disallow registry reserved names if authorisation code is not present
* a test to disallow ICANN reserved names
* a test to disallow otherwise reserved or unsuitable names
* a test to ensure that at least one address element is given

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6.2 - Verification tools

This verification procedure is designed to guarantee the reliability and the accuracy of the Whois database.
The .MMA registry will conduct Whois accuracy verification for compliance with criteria concerning the reliability of registrants identification: the registry will verify whether the information provided by the registrant when registering the domain name contains inaccurate or false information about the registrantʹs identity.
Those verifications will be carried out on a random basis or following a third-party request with the Single Abuse Point of Contact.

The registry may be led to ask registrars for additional information or documents, including the production of documentary evidence of compliance with the reliability of the data provided by the registrant if the registry is in possession of documentary evidence to the contrary (mail returned marked “Not Known at This Address”, bailiff’s report, unidentifiable address, etc.).

A domain name may be blocked under the following circumstances: when a check of the identification data provided by the registrant shows that it is inaccurate or that the registrant appears not to be eligible to register domain names in the .MMA TLD in accordance with the policies that have been set by the Registry.

If the investigation that is carried out by the Registry shows that the registrant is not compliant with such registration policies, the Registry Operator shall be entitled to outright delete such domain name and, as the case may be, put such domain name on a blocked list. However, the deletion of a domain name can only occur after the registrant has been formally asked to rectify the situation and to modify its registration data to comply with eligibility criteria.

During the redemption period, the domain name can be reactivated with the same configuration. Once deleted, the domain name will become available again and can be registered by a new applicant.

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6.3 - Whois Data Reminder Policy (WDRP)

In 2003, ICANN adopted the ʺWhois Data Reminder Policyʺ (WDRP, http:⁄⁄www.icann.org⁄en⁄registrars⁄wdrp.htm) which obliges ICANN-accredited registrars to send yearly Whois data reminder notices to registrants. These notices contain the Whois data currently on file for the respective domain, as well as instructions for the registrant about ways to correct the data if required. While the .MMA Registry does not intend to replicate this reminder procedure on the registry level, however MMA will comply with WDRP as expected from an ICANN accredited registrar.

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6.4 - Protection against unfair use of Whois service

As stated above, Whois Service gives access to sensitive data, including contact details of registrants. The .MMA registry is committed to insure the protection of these data against abusive behaviours. Firstly, the .MMA registry will implement technical measures to prevent data mining on the Whois, such as automated collection of registrants’ email addresses, which may on their turn be used by third parties for the purposes of spamming. Secondly, the .MMA registry and its registry backend service provider, AFNIC, will deploy all necessary means to secure access to its database, specifically by implementing procedures in order to prevent Unauthorized Data Modifications. These procedures will reinforce the security of both EPP and Web-based access to Whois data.

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6.5 - Protection against Data Mining

The .MMA registry database user commits to using the published data according to the laws and regulations in effect. Besides, the user shall respect the provisions of the French Data Protection Act. Violation of this act carries criminal penalties.

As the user is accessing personal data, he must refrain from any collection, misuse or any act that could lead to invasion of privacy or damaging the reputation of individuals.
The Registry can at any time filter the access to its services in case of malevolent use suspicions.

* Captcha: users shall pass a Captcha before access is granted to the web based RDDS.

* Rate-limiting: The registry has chosen limitation measures for the number of requests in order to prevent abuse in the use of personal data and to guarantee the quality of the service.
By a transparent parameter adjustment policy, the registry guarantees quality of service to the punctual users and professionals. The rates and thresholds of this system are described in the registry use case of question Q26.

* White list: The white list mechanism offers specific access for registrars to the port 43 whois considering that the incoming traffic must come from two pre-defined IP address. This white list access offers higher thresholds of rate limiting for the users.

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6.6 - Prevention of Unauthorized data modification (Domain functions and control of the domain ⁄ control of use)

Domains are fully controlled by MMA in its roles of Registry and Single Registrant.
The single Registrant will be solely entitled to proceed with any administrative modification of the domain name (such as renewal, update of the Registrant data, etc.).

Technical modifications related to name servers will be asked either directly or through the registrar.
Such precaution, together with the random checks on the use of domain names will enable to limit the potential abuse through .MMA domain names.

Data modification is managed through strict authentication and access policies.
* SSL⁄TLS protocol is used on all interfaces with clients (both EPP and web based SRS).
* a password policy is applied both on the password itself (minimum length, mandatory digits and non-alphanumerical characters), and on the validity term of the password
* use of an SSL client certificate pre-installed by the registry for EPP access.
* IP authentication limited to two addresses.
The .MMA registry backend service provider, AFNIC, will share its experience in the .fr with a view to ensuring effective, timely and sufficient Domain Data Access Control.

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6.7 - Prevention from other abusive conducts

= DNSSEC (cache poisoning) =

One of the main authentication issue encountered on the DNS is the cache poisoning issue. This directly affects DNS service integrity without the attacker having to corrupt or modify data in the registry database.
The answer to this issue is implementation and deployment of DNSSEC. The registry operator already successfully manages DNSSEC-enabled zones: on September, 29th 2010, the .MMA registry back-end service provider, AFNIC, finished adding its 6 ccTLDs key materials (DS records) into the IANA root zone, ending with .FR after extensive tests with its other TLDs. Since then, related DNSSEC operations and monitoring are spread inside the organization, alongside all other standard day to day operations, so that DNSSEC is a core service enabled by default.

= Domain name Sniping (grabbing) =

Domain name sniping refers to the practice of trying to re-register potentially interesting domain names immediately after they are deleted.
The .MMA Registry supports the Redemption Grace Period as proposed by ICANN and implements it in full compliance with RFC 3915 (ʺDomain Registry Grace Period Mapping for the Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)ʺ). This greatly reduces the possibility of a domain name being “forgotten” by its registrant.

= Domain name tasting =

Domain name testing is a practice using the 5-days Add Grace Period (AGP) during which a newly created domain name may be deleted with a refund of the domain fee to check if the domain name is of interest or not. AGP is implemented and therefore domain name testing has to be dealt with. However, considering the fact that the .MMA is intended to be a single registrant-TLD, the chances that this process will be effectively used is rather limited, although the AGP is common practice and corresponds to the policies of almost all existing generic top-level domains.

In 2008, ICANN introduced the ʺAGP Limits Policyʺ (http:⁄⁄ www.icann.org⁄en⁄tlds⁄agp-policy-17dec08-en.htm) which addresses these issues resulting from the Add Grace Period. The .MMA registry, will fully implement this policy by restricting Add Grace Period refunds to registrars according to the limits specified by the policy.

The number of operations concerned are included in ICANN reports and related report columns are :
* number of AGP deletes (ʺdomains-deleted-graceʺ)
* number of exemption requests (ʺagp-exemption-requestsʺ)
* number of exemptions granted (ʺagp-exemptions-grantedʺ)
* number of names affected by granted exemption request (ʺagp- exempted-domainsʺ)


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7 - Abuse prevention and mitigation policies and procedures

The essence of any abuse prevention and mitigation policy is to strengthen the background checks on all applicants “to protect the public interest in the allocation of critical internet resources”.
For our Single Registrant structure, enabling effective risk mitigation will be as follows:

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7.1 - No automatic domain registrations: The Delegation Commission’s filter

Before the registration of a domain name, a Delegation Commission will be in charge of the validation of the project, including the required domain name and its intended use. Apart from the adequacy with the Community interests and values, elements such as third parties rights, geographical names, public order and common interest will be taken into account. Any content which may raise risks, be potentially confusing or deceptive, or have a negative impact on the consumer, will be automatically excluded.

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7.2 - Random Checks in respect of the use of the domain names

After the registration of a domain name and the activation of the related website, random checks will be performed by the Delegation Commission which granted the right of use of the domain name.

If the use of the domain name does not match the project validated by the Delegation Commission, the Delegation Commission may initiate a Registry procedure aimed at protecting MMAʹs Community, domain users and third parties:

* The domain user must remedy the issue raised by the Delegation Commission within 72 hours.
* After these 72 hours, if the Commission finds that the issue is remedied, i.e. the domain is used as for its intended use, the file is then closed.
* If the issue is not remedied, the Delegation Commission may decide on suspension of the use of the domain⁄ site or deletion of the domain.
* The domain user may appeal this decision in writing within a reasonable lapse of time with the Highest Representative of the Registry.

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7.3 - Sensitization to Pharming and Phishing

In relation to pharming and phishing practices, the Registry will implement regular and frequent warnings and explanations on the Registry website and will use any means to sensitize Community members and users to such patterns, e.g. emailing the Community members, warning on the .MMA websites, possibility to reach the Abuse Point of Contact for these practices.

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7.4 - Registry Commitments

The Registry is committed:
* to implement the requirements for thick Whois (management by the Registry)
* to publish anti-abuse Point of Contact as well as suspension procedures

Given its Brand Community nature and its structure, the .MMA constitutes in itself a measure of protection against possible abuses.


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8 - Resourcing

One Point of Contact from the legal department is in charge of receiving the complaints and to make a decision:
* either the case is obvious and the POC takes immediate action, or
* the situation is more complex and the POC submits the Complaint to the Abuse Commission.

The Abuse Commission consists of 2 members from the legal department in charge of dealing with complaints which are too complex to be handled by the POC. Members of the Abuse Commission are different from those composing the Delegation Commission.

The POC and the Abuse Commission members will be chosen among Community members, and according to the following criteria:
* Legal skills: the POC and Abuse Commission must have the experience and capability to assess abuse claims,
* Technical skills: the POC and Abuse Commission must have a good understanding of the basic functioning of domain names and basic knowledge of the Internet architecture.

POC and Abuse Commission will be designated on the GO-Live date of the Registry. Substitutes to the POC and to members of the Abuse Commission will also be designated to palliate any absence.

The registry services provider AFNIC, provides the following resources :

Initial Implementation: Thanks to the experience and prior investment by its Registry Back-end Service Provider (AFNIC), the .MMA Registry already supports the above mentioned technical abuse prevention and mitigation measures. No additional engineering is required for these, nor are additional development resources needed.

Ongoing maintenance: In support of the Registry Operator’s staff allocated to this function, AFNIC will havespecially trained support staff available to assist in the implementation of potential verifications and takedown procedure for the prevention and resolution of potential abuse. Given the scale of the .MMA as well as the restrictive nature of its registration policy, we estimate that this would require no more than 10 man days per year of AFNIC’s anti-abuse support staff.

29. Rights Protection Mechanisms


Table of Contents

1 - Eligibility rules
1.1 - Eligibility
1.2 - Resourcing
2 - Phishing ⁄ pharming ⁄ other practices with a negative impact on consumers
3 - Mandatory rights protection mechanisms (RPMs)
3.1 - Trademark claims notice service
3.2 - Sunrise Service
3.3 - URS
3.4 - UDRP
3.5 - PDDRP
3.6 - RRDRP



This application is a Brand Community application intended to serve the interests of MMAʹs Community. Therefore, its nature, structure and purpose, are a natural safeguard to limit potential rights infringements issues.


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1 - Eligibility rules

The registration conditions and procedure of .MMA domain names exclude automatic delegation of such domains. Indeed, all applications for the use of domain names have to pass the ad hoc Delegation Commission checking, and it is only if and when approved by that Delegation Commission that they will be registered.

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1.1 - Eligibility

While ownership of domain names under .MMA is restricted to MMA, Domain Name Users may only be members of MMAʹs community who abide by the eligibility conditions as provided for in this application.

Details of .MMA domains registration rules and validation procedure:

* Any applicant meeting MMAʹs eligibility requirements for the use of a domain name under .MMA may apply for a use license for a .MMA domain name.

* Compliance with eligibility requirements will systematically be verified at the time of application by the Delegation Commission (2 members from legal and commercial departments). Domain Users will be asked to provide detailed information such as identification details, contact information and profession-specific information (e.g. license number).

* When approved by the Delegation Commission, the applied for domain name will be registered in the name of the Single Registrant. Only a use license is given to the domain name applicant.

* The Delegation Commission may decide for strategic reasons to reserve the use of the domain name to the Single Registrant.

* The Delegation Commission’s mission is to analyze:
* The applied for domain name: For the assessment of relevant domain names, the Delegation Commission will take into account prior third parties rights by searching the TMCH. In the event identical previous rights are identified, the Commission will assess the risk of confusion and potential infringement.
* The intended use of domain names: Apart from the compliance with MMA community values, the commission will pay special attention to the potential risks of infringement to third parties rights and to the patterns deemed to have negative consequences on the public. More specifically, use raising risks of phishing and pharming practices will automatically be rejected.

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1.2 - Resourcing

Registration of .MMA domain names results from a decision of the Delegation Commission.
The Delegation Commission consists of 2 members from MMAʹs legal and commercial departments who assess the potential conflicts raised by the registration of a domain name including, but not limited to, trademark rights, geographical names, public order and morality.
The Delegation Commission will be designated at the opening of the Registry.


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2 - Phishing ⁄ pharming ⁄ other practices with a negative impact on consumers

The Registry will proceed with different actions to sensitize the Community members and the users to such misconducts.
As mentioned in question 28, these actions may include but are not limited to:
* Display of warning(s) on the Registry site as well as on other MMA websites,
* Emailing campaigns,
* Communication through secured systems,
* Possibility to reach the Abuse Point of Contact.


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3 - Mandatory rights protection mechanisms (RPMs)

First, these RPMs consist of a trademark claims service and a Sunrise period, which will be implemented through the use of the Trademark Clearing House (TMCH).

Moreover, the .MMA registry undertakes to implement and adhere to any rights protection mechanisms (“RPMs”) that may be mandated by ICANN, among which URS and UDRP, but also the trademark post-delegation dispute resolution procedure (Trademark PDDRP) and the Registry Restrictions Dispute Resolution Procedure (RRDRP) .

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3.1 - Trademark claims notice service

* The Registry is committed to providing this notice service to applicants of existing trademark rights and to rights holders of relevant names.

* The Registry is moreover committed to continue offering this service after the end of the start-up phase.

* Before registration of any domain name, trademark rights are considered by the Delegation Commission during the domain name delegation procedure. Delegation Commission will refer spontaneously to the TMCH to minimize the risks of trademarks abuse.

* At the end of the Sunrise period, trademark claims notifications will be sent to domain names applicants if the applied for domain name matches a trademark registered in the TMCH. Trademark claims notice will provide the domain name applicant with relevant information on the scope of the mark holder’s rights i.e. TMCH database information. These links will be provided at no costs.

* At the end of the Sunrise period, trademark claimants in the TMCH will receive notice of “just accepted” sunrise registrations.

* After the Sunrise period, trademark holders registered in the TMCH will continue receiving notification of registration of domain names matching the claimed trademark rights.

* After registration of the domain name, trademark claims may be sent to the designated Abuse Point of Contact.

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3.2 - Sunrise Service

* A 30 days minimal length Sunrise Period will be set up at the opening of the Registry.

* This Sunrise Period will first take into account previous intellectual property rights, including trademark rights (registered rights or common law rights), such as those registered with the TMCH.

* Trademarks rights owners may request the use of a relevant domain name to their trademarks. If fulfilling the eligibility requirements, trademark rights owners may be granted priority for the use of the relevant domain name.

* Sunrise Period will grant certain advantages to Community members. Priority may be given to a part of the Community, according to criteria to be defined by the Community. Such criteria may include but are not limited to:
* Nature of the relation with the Community,
* Seniority among the Community,
* Trademark rights,
* Position in the Community.

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3.3 - URS

* The URS - primarily designed to be faster and cheaper than the UDRP - is intended for what ICANN refers to as “clear cut instances of trademark abuse”.

* After receiving a notice by email on the filing of a URS complaint, the Registry will lock the contested domain. This means the Registry will restrict all changes to the registration data, including transfer and deletion of the domain names, but the name will continue to resolve. The Registry will then notify the URS provider immediately upon locking the domain name (ʺNotice of Lockʺ).

* The Registry and its registrar(s) are bound by specific URS procedure remedy, namely the suspension of the domain name for the registration period.


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3.4 - UDRP

* The Registry acknowledges the position and validity of the dispute resolution system set up by ICANN and the legitimacy of the provider(s) chosen by ICANN. Any dispute arising according to these rules will be submitted to the Uniform Dispute Resolution procedure. The Registry guarantees its full cooperation and will provide any required information within a reasonable timeframe. Decisions will be executed within the required deadlines.

* Upon notification, the Registry reserves the right to remedy the situation as per the complainant’s request even before a decision is made by the UDRP provider:
* by suspending the domain name,
* by deleting the domain name, or
* by contemplating the possibility to re-delegate the use of the domain name to the complainant (insofar as the eligibility criteria are met).

* In the case of a Single Registrant, MMA’s understanding is that the UDRP procedure can only lead to the rejection of the complainant’s request, or to the deletion of the domain name but cannot consist of a transfer to a third party.

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3.5 - PDDRP

The Trademark PDDRP is designed to deal with abuse in both the top and second levels. As provided in Specification 7 “MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RIGHTS PROTECTION MECHANISMS” of the Base Registry Agreement, .MMA registry will comply with the Trademark Post-Delegation Dispute Resolution Procedure (PDDRP) adopted by ICANN.

According to said Specification 7, PDDRP occurs when a third-party complainant (“Complainant”) has filed a Complaint with a Provider asserting that the Complainant is a trademark holder (which may include either registered or unregistered marks) claiming that one or more of its marks have been infringed, and thereby the Complainant has been harmed, by the registry operator’s manner of operation or use of the gTLD.

.MMA registry agrees to implement and adhere, if founded, to any remedies the Expert panel may recommend on that basis (which may include any reasonable remedy, including for the avoidance of doubt, the termination of the Registry Agreement pursuant to Section 4.3(e) of the Registry Agreement) following a determination by any PDDRP panel (when purposeful abuse of a brand by the registry is evidenced) and to be bound by any such determination.

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3.6 - RRDRP

As .MMA is a community-based- top-level domain, MMA acknowledges that RRDRP will apply.

As provided in Specification 7 “MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RIGHTS PROTECTION MECHANISMS” of the Base Registry Agreement, the .MMA registry will comply with the Registration Restriction Dispute Resolution Procedure (RRDRP) adopted by ICANN.

According to said Specification 7, RRDRP occurs when a third-party complainant (“Complainant”) has filed a Complaint with a Provider asserting that the Complainant is a harmed established institution (that has a connection with the Community) as a result of the community-based gTLD registry operator not complying with the registration restrictions set out in the Registry Agreement.

MMA agrees to implement and adhere, if founded, to any remedies the Expert panel may recommend on that basis (which may include any reasonable remedy, including for the avoidance of doubt, the termination of the Registry Agreement pursuant to Section 4.3(e) of the Registry Agreement) following a determination by any RRDRP panel and to be bound by any such determination.

30(a). Security Policy: Summary of the security policy for the proposed registry

Table of Contents

1 - Background
2 - Organization of security
2.1 - The place of Security in AFNIC’s processes:
2.2 - Security Coordination
2.3 - Assignment of responsibilities
2.3.1 - Organizational chain of responsibility
2.3.2 - Relations with the authorities and groups of specialists
2.4 - Independent security review
2.5 - Relations with third parties
2.5.1 - Risk Management
2.5.2 - Security of sensitive areas
2.5.3 - Sensitive external sites
2.5.4 - Security assurances for domain name registrants
3 - Registry Asset Management
3.1 - Responsibilities for Registry assets
3.1.1 - Inventory of assets
3.1.2 - Qualification of support assets
3.1.3 - Ownership of assets
3.1.4 - Good and fair use of assets
3.2 - Guidelines for the classification of information
4 - Security related to human resources
4.1 - Roles and Responsibilities
4.2 - Background checks conducted on security personnel
5 - Physical and environmental security
5.1 - Secure areas
5.2 - Hardware security
6 - Operations Management and Telecommunications
6.1 - Procedures and responsibilities related to operations
6.2 - Scheduling and acceptance testing of the system
6.3 - Protection against malicious and mobile code
6.4 - Back-up
6.5 - Security management of network services
6.6 - Monitoring operation of the System
7 - Access Control
7.1 - Business requirements for access control
7.2 - Control of network access
7.3 - Control of access to operating systems
8 - Acquisition, development and maintenance of information systems
8.1 - Cryptographic measures
8.2 - Management of technical vulnerabilities
9 - Managing incidents related to information security
9.1 - Managing improvement and incidents related to information security
10 - IT Disaster Recovery Plan
11 - Integrating audits of the information system


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1 - Background

The security policy is designed to ensure proper management of the risks that may significantly impact the services provided, the contexts in which they are implemented, and the key personnel involved in operating the Registry. It also defines security level for the scalability ⁄ responsiveness to security incidents, the Registry Data integrity and the confidentiality of personal data of domain name owners.

The Information Security Policy is reviewed at least once a year.


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2 - Organization of security

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2.1 - The place of Security in AFNIC’s processes:

AFNIC has set up a Quality Management System (QMS) following the European Framework for QUality Management (EFQM) excellence model. It describes AFNIC’s activities as a series of business processes. Security Process called “ENSURE SECURITY AND BUSINESS CONTINUITY” is one of the cross-business-processes supporting process. It is designed to be compliant with the ISO 27001 norm.
Ensuring security and business continuity mainly consists in defining and controlling how to :
* Supervise the governance of security,
* Apply security measures into the concerned operational fields,
* Manage the risks that could negatively impact the Registries operations.

The implementation of the AFNICʹs ISMS (Information Security Management System) is performed in the framework of the Security process with a view to obtaining ISO 27001 certification by 2014.

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2.2 - Security Coordination

The overall responsibility for security rests with the CEO. He is assisted in this role by the AFNIC Security Manager (ASM).

Strategic supervision is ensured in a concerted manner by the AFNIC Security Council (ASC) chaired by the AFNIC CEO. The purpose of the ASC is to assist and ensure that the conditions are conducive to attaining the security objectives that fall within the scope of the current strategy.

The ASC further supports the development of security practices at AFNIC through the supporting of operation business functions in implementing security policies, business continuity plans, and staff awareness activities. In carrying out its assignment, the ASC may refer at any time to the Executive Management for advice or a decision on the security of AFNIC and TLD.

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2.3 - Assignment of responsibilities

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2.3.1 - Organizational chain of responsibility

The application of security measures to the SRS, DNS, Whois, and other Information Systems is the responsibility of the CTO (head of the Information Systems Division).
The implementation of security measures for staff and premises is the responsibility of the CFO.
The implementation of security measures with respect to legal obligations and registry policies is the responsibility of the Registryʹs Legal Affairs and Policies Director.
The application of security measures relating to damage to the Registryʹs image is the responsibility of the Marketing and Innovation Director.
All the collaborators must be aware of their responsibility concerning the security of resources and information they are accessing, manipulating, publishing.

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2.3.2 - Relations with the authorities and groups of specialists

AFNIC has an agreement with the French National Agency for the Security of Information Systems (ANSSI). Against this background, the two structures cooperate on security issues that may affect AFNIC services related to its Internet business and risk management in this area.
They cooperate within the framework of two programs on the resilience of the Internet in France :
* Cooperation between the operators of vitals infrastructures in order to improve their capacity to respond to major crises affecting several operators at the same time: the Internet critical services (IP Routing and DNS) are now included in the nomenclature;
* Cooperation to assess the resilience of the French .fr TLD and more generally all the TLDs operated by AFNIC for use by the public.

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2.4 - Independent security review

Security audits must be conducted by independent organizations twice a year on global and ⁄ or specific issues related to security.

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2.5 - Relations with third parties

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2.5.1 - Risk Management

Risk studies are conducted using the EBIOS methodology (Expression of Business needs and Identification of Security Objectives, in French). This method was designed in 1995 by the French National Agency for Information Security. It is currently used to identify the worst-case scenarios that could affect registry activity. That leads Afnic to design and apply mitigation measures to enhance the protection against these worst-case scenarios.

The control of the effectiveness and efficiency of mitigation measures is performed by the AFNIC’s Security Council all along the year.

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2.5.2 - Security of sensitive areas

All sensitive areas are under control. That means that access must be controlled and could be restricted to authorized personnel only.
Co-contractors may be requested to sign a confidentiality agreement if required by the sensitivity of information and data they need to know and⁄or use. They only have access to critical technical facilities if accompanied, and never work on production systems.

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2.5.3 - Sensitive external sites

All security must be applied to protect AFNIC’s resources on external sites. That can be made by private zones and access control to them managed by AFNIC itself.

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2.5.4 - Security assurances for domain name registrants

The Registry guarantees the following for registrants :
* The continuous availability of operations on its portfolio of domain names, in accordance with the SLA on the SRS
* The continuous availability of information related to the domain, on condition that the registrant uses the services provided to carry out the operations in question,
* The confidentiality of the registrantsʹ personal data (except where other special conditions apply related to the policy of the registry)
* The confidentiality of non-public data relating to the domain and ⁄ or its portfolio of domain names,
* The confidentiality of the transactions with the Registryʹs system,
* The integrity of the information related to its domain name,and published in the WHOIS and the DNS.


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3 - Registry Asset Management

The security of the registryʹs assets is ensured by the staff assigned to the registryʹs production operations and management activities.
Considering the network connectivity provided by third party, AFNIC’s property begins at the service delivery point.

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3.1 - Responsibilities for Registry assets

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3.1.1 - Inventory of assets

Assets used in the run of critical services are identified, qualified, and managed under the guidance of the present policy. Assets considered are staff, infrastructure, software, connectivity, data and providers.

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3.1.2 - Qualification of support assets

The assets contributing to the Services are classified in 3 main categories :
* Computer Systems and Telecommunications : Hardware and Software; Communications Channels; Outsourced Services;
* Organizations : Staff; Corporate departments;
* Physical locations for business : Offices; Hosting Datacenters;

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3.1.3 - Ownership of assets

Registry data belong to the Registry owner. They are subject to the rules of the contract with ICANN, plus the applicable legal and ⁄ or legislative rules depending on the context in which the registry is implemented

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3.1.4 - Good and fair use of assets

All the registry operations and services must be used by third party in accordance with the contractual rules defined by the owner and the operator of the TLD.

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3.2 - Guidelines for the classification of information

The data used or produced in the context of the Registry are classified in the 3 following categories :

= Critical information = : it can⁄must be accessed⁄showed only by accredited persons. Disclosure or alteration may result in significant damage but repairable.

= Reserved information = : Information is limited to persons, entities or authorized partners. Disclosure or alteration may result in significant harm.

= Internal Information = : Information is available to staff of AFNIC and authorized partners. Disclosure or alteration may perturb the normal functioning of the company, without lasting consequence.


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4 - Security related to human resources

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4.1 - Roles and Responsibilities

There are 2 categories of staff :

* Technical staff : These personnel have access to resources according to defined rights.
* Administrators in charge of administering production resources. They can access all the production resources and data.
* Technicians in charge of the operation, maintenance and monitoring of the production system. They have limited rights of access to production resources. They can access certain resources on request and when accompanied by an administrator.
* Experts in charge of the design and development of production resources. They only have access to the production resources on request and when accompanied by a technician and ⁄ or an administrator.
* Non-technical staff :
* Administrative staff and managers (excluding production).

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4.2 - Background checks conducted on security personnel

French law applies to all staff. The contract they sign with their employer contains sufficient provisions in terms of professionalism and ethics for the activity involving the TLD. Same rules are applicable a Data Center level.


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5 - Physical and environmental security

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5.1 - Secure areas

AFNIC production sites are secured at the means of access to them. The DATA CENTER sites must meet the standards of industrial and environmental security compatible with the constraints implied by their activity. The layout of the premises must be such that access is restricted only to authorized personnel at entry points selected and controlled by AFNIC.

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5.2 - Hardware security

The Data centers that host AFNIC services ensure at least Tier 3 levels of resilience.


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6 - Operations Management and Telecommunications

AFNIC controls the operation of all the resources used to deliver essential services with the exception, of course, of outsourced services such as certain DNS servers.
AFNIC operates dark fiber connections between its sites. The terminals are owned by AFNIC. They are operated by AFNIC personnel.

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6.1 - Procedures and responsibilities related to operations

Operating procedures are documented and kept up to date on the intranet of the IT team.
Access to the applications, servers and databases must be defined and kept up to date for each staff member.
Access privileges are defined in order to respect the security rules associated with the classification of information.
Operations related to DNSSEC are subject to even more stringent security regulations and require respecting the DPS procedure.

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6.2 - Scheduling and acceptance testing of the system

The test, pre-production and production phases must be clearly specified. Any production launch must be announced to the registrars at least 2 month before it applies.

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6.3 - Protection against malicious and mobile code

All the entry points to the production servers are filtered by the firewall, which applies the filtering policy common to all the procedures, whether they involve a human operator or an automated process.

Each development must apply security rules and recommendations on the development of application.
The Web access must be protected against the most common (Script kiddies, SQL injection …)

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6.4 - Back-up

Registry data are stored and secured using the real-time replication mechanisms of the production Database Management System (production DBMS).
In addition, a physical backup of the entire database must be performed at the same time as the back-up of the other components of the SRS.
To be compliant with the ICANN requirements, a data escrow deposit must be performed every day between 0:00 am end 12:00pm

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6.5 - Security management of network services

A strict partitioning into zones must be implemented in order to avoid interconnections between the external production, administration and backup networks.

Any internal and external attempts to access production servers must pass through a Firewall. They are recorded in a log file for later analysis. The detection of malicious code based on a regularly updated list must be performed at this level.

An intrusion detections system must be installed and running between firewall and production servers.

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6.6 - Monitoring operation of the System

Automated monitoring must be implemented. It must cover the hardware, software systems and production applications.
Any failure must be subject to a specific alert sent to the staff:
* on duty during office hours;
* NOC staff outside office hours;


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7 - Access Control

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7.1 - Business requirements for access control

Access to the information system requires prior identification and authentication. The use of shared or anonymous accounts must be avoided. Mechanisms to limit the services, data, and privileges to which the users have access based on their role at AFNIC and the Registry must be implemented wherever possible.

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7.2 - Control of network access

The internal network must be partitioned to isolate the different services and applications and limit the impact of incidents. In particular it is highly desirable to isolate services visible from the outside in a semi-open zone (DMZ). Similarly, access to the wireless network must be controlled and the network must be subject to appropriate encryption.

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7.3 - Control of access to operating systems

The production servers must be confined in secure facilities. Access must be restricted to authorized personnel only. The personnel in question are the members of the operating teams and their managers, IT personnel and those of the Security Manager.


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8 - Acquisition, development and maintenance of information systems

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8.1 - Cryptographic measures

Cryptographic measures must be implemented to secure the exchanges :
* between the workstations of technical staff and the access proxies to production servers;
* between the Registrars and the EPP server;
* between the DNS master servers and the resolution servers;
* to upload the records of the Escrow Agent.

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8.2 - Management of technical vulnerabilities

The technical configuration of hardware and software used must be subject to up to date documentation.
The changes in technical configurations must be constantly monitored and documented.
Security alerts involving updates and ⁄ or patches to production systems must be constantly monitored.
Application procedures must be documented and updated based on the recommendations of the designers of a component.


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9 - Managing incidents related to information security

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9.1 - Managing improvement and incidents related to information security

The crisis management procedure serves to mobilize at a sufficiently high echelon, all the appropriate levels of responsibility for taking decisions on the actions required to resolve the crisis and return to normal.
Each security incident must be analyzed under the cover of the Security Council and the recommendations, if any, are applied, checked and evaluated as required by the QMS.


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10 - IT Disaster Recovery Plan

The risk analysis must produce some inputs for the elaboration of a disaster recovery plan. That plan has to be established and regularly tested in order to maintain or recover Registry activity and make critical services available at the required SLA after an interruption or a crash of critical services of the Registry.


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11 - Integrating audits of the information system

Security audits are performed annually. They are launched on the initiative of the CTO or upon request from the ASC. They are carried out by independent bodies and relate to one or more of the essentials services of the Registry.

The ASC and the ASM control the implementation and the efficiency of these measures in the framework of S3 process (see section 2.1).





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